Posted: Sat Aug 26, 2017 6:56 am Post subject: Khojki and khojki tutorial
Here is a Khojki Tutorial by Mumtaz Ali, an authority in the field of Khojki and Ginanic literature. His tutorial is available for English speaking people since more than 25 years and has been used and quoted extensively.
Zawahir is now 83 years old but still active in the field as she was a pioneer in producing in 1974 the first ever produced catalog of 114 khojki manuscripts hosted at the Ismailia Association of Pakistan.
Together with Mumtaz Ali Tajddin and late Dr Gulshan Khakee, she is among the pioneers of Khojki studies in the 20th Century.
Here is an article she wrote with Dr Christopher Shackle and which contains an excellent Khojki tutorial which I know is used by some of the IIS scholars. The Tutorial also contains exercises.
Here is a couple of pages from a Khojki Tutorial dated 1969 and produced by the Ismailia Association for the Urdu speaking people in Karachi. The book named "Khojki Urdu Qaida" will be available soon as part of a large collection of books and manuscripts to be made available in a new document server.
Posted: Thu Aug 01, 2019 6:20 pm Post subject: Juan Bruce: Typographic development of the Khojki script
Typographic development of the Khojki script and printing affairs at the turn of the 19th century in Bombay
The Khojki script, the ancient alphabet of the Khojas, was born in a conested area, the region of Sindh. Being used to record the Satpanthi literature, commonly in the form of ginans, flourished and strengthen due to a great typographic development in the late 19th century and beginning of the 20th, but perished in a short period of time. This flourishment was only possible due to the need for presses to disseminate religious and institutional printed material. This paper aims to overview the history and decline of Khojki, but mostly to delve onto the affairs of the printing presses, which were in business using different technologies; first lithography and then movable metal types. The Khoja Sindhi Printing Press, the official Ismaili press run by Lalji Devraj, was the most active. Through analysis of printed samples, this paper also questions the official Ismaili version of how the presses were established and presents the possibility of that many of them were discourage and probably taken out of business because of their detachment of any particular group.
The consolidation of the printing business coincides with a major split among the Khojas, triggered by the arrival of the Aga Khan to Bombay, who claim to be their Shia leader. The new Imam secured the majority of the followers after the famous Aga Khan Case in 1866, after which a fractured Khoja community was inevitably aligned towards new identities. Particularly the Khoja Ismailis, loyals to the Aga Khan, were rapidly pressured to position their believes towards a new narrative of Islam, this shift in identity and new status, seems to have had a direct impact in the disuse of Khojki.
Read full article in PDF here: http://ismaili.net/source/books/bruce-typography-khojki.pdf
Posted: Thu Aug 01, 2019 6:32 pm Post subject: Juan Bruce: The origins, evolution and decline of the Khojki
The origins, evolution and decline of the Khojki script
The Khojki script is an Indian script whose origins are in Sindh (now southern Pakistan), a region that has witnessed the conflict between Islam and Hinduism for more than 1,200 years. After the gradual occupation of the region by Muslims from the 8th century onwards, the region underwent significant cultural changes.
This dissertation reviews the history of the script and the different uses that it took on among the Khoja people since Muslim missionaries began their activities in Sindh communities in the 14th century. It questions the origins of the Khojas and exposes the impact that their transition from a Hindu merchant caste to a broader Muslim community had on the development of the script. During this process of transformation, a rich and complex creed, known as Satpanth, resulted from the blend of these cultures. The study also considers the roots of the Khojki writing system, especially the modernization that the script went through in order to suit more sophisticated means of expression. As a result, through recording the religious Satpanth literature, Khojki evolved and left behind its mercantile features, insufficient for this purpose.
Through comparative analysis of printed Khojki texts, this dissertation examines the use of the script in Bombay at the beginning of the 20th century in the shape of Khoja Ismaili literature. It concludes that due to the Islamization of the Khojas in colonial India, the script began its decline in the following decades when the production of texts in Khojki stopped. Finally, in the middle of fundamental political changes on the Indian subcontinent, Khojki struggled to survive as a living script until it gave way to its definitive replacement by Gujarati and Arabic in the regions of Gujarat and Sindh, respectively.
Read full article in PDF here: http://ismaili.net/source/books/bruce-origin-khojki.pdf
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