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PostPosted: Fri Apr 18, 2008 1:07 pm    Post subject: "GHADIRE-E-KHUMM" Reply with quote

BISMILIAHIR RAHMANIR RAHIM--- (In the Name of God the Most Compassionate the Most Merciful)


Yaum-ul-Ghadir Mubarak Everyone!

Eid-e Gadhir is celebrated with great rejoicing by Shia Muslims where they remember Prophet Muhammad's last instructions to the believers. Eid-e-Ghadir is one of the most important days of rejoicing for Shia Muslims around the world as that was the day our beloved Prophet Muhammad (s.a.s.) declared Hazrat Ali's vicegerency at Ghadir e Khumm on his return from his last pilgrimage which is known in history as ‘Hajjat-ul-Wida'. This took place on the 18th of Zil-Hajj, in 632 AC, 3 months before his demise, when the Prophet and his followers were returning from his last pilgrimage. Prophet Muhammad announced that he had received an important revelation from Allah, and made a halt at the pond called Ghadir Khumm. A make-shift dias was erected from sadles, sticks and camel skins and as soon as all the pilgrims were gathered, he acted upon the revelation of Ayah-e Gadhir Khumm.

"O Messenger (Prophet), deliver to the people what has been revealed to you from your Lord and if you do not do so then you will not have delivered His message and Allah will protect you from the people. For God does not guide those who reject Faith."

Ya 'ayyuhar Rasoolu ballig maa unzila ilayka mir-Rabbik. Wa illam taf'al famaa ballagta Risaalatah. Wallaahu ya'simuka minan naas. Innal'laaha laa yahdilqawmal kaafiriin. Quran 5:67

The Prophet thence declared "'Man Kuntu Mowlahu fa haza Aliyun Mowlahu' - 'He of whomever I am the Master-Lord (Mowla), Ali is his Master-Lord (Mowla). Prophet Muhammad had been discoursing all the other revelations among the muslims regarding the tenets and practice of the faith and about material life, and what could this verse of surpassing urgency mean and why was he admonished that if he did not reveal that message then his mission would be unfulfilled! Why had he been warned so strongly by Allah to deliver the message right away.

According to Shia tradition, Prophet Muhammad had been apprehensive about declaring his own son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abu Talib as his spiritual (Amirul Momineen, Commander of the believers) and secular (Caliph, King) heir, for fear that it would divide the nascent Muslim community. The rich Muslims were already jealous of Hazrat Ali's favored position with Prophet Muhammad (being married to Hazrat Fatima, being his cousin, appointed as Commander at many important battles) and in the above revelation God reassures him.

Al Muayyad talks about the Gadhir-e Khumm appointment in his Majalis as follows:

"It must be borne in mind that after the death of the Prophet the belief in the Wilayat of the Imams from his progeny is as important a part of our religion as the belief in the Wilayat of the Prophet in his lifetime. This is supported by the Tradition according to which the Prophet is reported to have said at ‘Ghadeer Khum', "Am I not more precious to you than your own-selves." This is an echo of the Qur'anic verse which says, "The Prophet is more dear to the ‘Momins' than their own-selves to them." It is said, that in response to this question by the Prophet, when the ‘Momins' said "Yes, you are dearer to us than our own lives", the Prophet said, "O God, be witness to their admission". After this he said, "‘Ali is the master of one who acknowledges me to be his master. O God love those who love ‘Ali. Help those who help ‘Ali. Desert those who desert ‘Ali. Let the truth accompany ‘Ali wherever he goes."

Prophet Muhammad felt great relief upon accomplishment of his mission of declaring Hazrat Ali his successor and legatee, wasi, and thereupon received the final revelation:

"This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion" Quran 5:3.

"Surely those who swear allegiance to you do but swear allegiance to Allah; the hand of Allah is above their hands. Therefore whoever breaks (his faith), he breaks it only to the injury of his own soul, and whoever fulfills what he has pledged with Allah, He will grant him a mighty reward." Quran ( 48:10 )

"And, He it is who made the stars for you that ye maybe rightly guided by observing them in the darkness of the land and the sea; Indeed we have made plain the Signs for the people who can know. Qur'an ( 6:98 )

The Holy Prophet (sas) said:

"As the stars in the sky are the source of guidance to the travelers, the Holy Ones of my Ahl al Bayt (the Imams descended from the Prophet's family) are the source of guidance for the people. And, as the stars will remain in the sky until the day of judgment, the earth will never be without a Divine Guide from my Ahl al Bayt, that is an Imam".

O God shower thy blessings on Muhammad and his progeny!

Several verses in the Quran speak about the Light of God and Rope of Imamat which is a continuous chain (Hablillah) since Hazrat Adam, through all the Prophets including, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Muhammad and after him through the hereditary Imams. The Mahdi - Savior that is referred to by all Prophets and religions is referred to the Noor of Allah, Living and present in Mowlana Shah Karim Al Hussaini Hazar Imam. Allahuma Salli 'ala Muhammadin wa Ahl-e Muhammad.

In the Fatimid era, Eid-e Ghadir became an even more important holiday as the Imams were also the Caliphs and many blessings were showered on the community.

"Morale and enthusiasm were kept up by the observance of various festivals of general Islamic nature; particularly those of Shia and Ismaili. Fridays and the two Idd days were the days of festivity. Moreover, the Shia festival of Idd-e-Ghadeer al-Khumm and the 10th of Muharram were also observed.

Birthdays of the Ahl-e-Bayt (the Prophet's family) and the Imams and certain important dates of the year were celebrated. Imam took part in the celebrations of the festivals. Local festivals of secular origin, like the "Flooding of the Nile" and "Navroz" (beginning of spring) were also encouraged by the Imam. Imam al-Muiz would hold huge receptions at his palace; processions were taken through the town and the whole town was illuminated". - From History of the Imams

"And say those who disbelieve: "why hath not a sign been sent down unto him (Muhammad)"; Verily thou art a warner and for every people there is a guide" Quran (13:7)

[i][b]By: Sakar Datoo
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PostPosted: Fri Apr 18, 2008 1:09 pm    Post subject: Re: "GHADIRE-E-KHUMM" Reply with quote

BISMILIAHIR RAHMANIR RAHIM---(In the Name of God the Most Compassionate the Most Merciful)



The Wilayat of Mowlana Ali (RA)

(1)By: Al-Mu’ayyad fid-din as-Shirazi
O Mu’mins, may God help you in deriving the fullest benefit from the glories of the day. (Eid e Ghadir) (2) It was on this day that God conferred on us the highest of His favors. It was on this day that a great ordinance was issued by God which is the terminating point in the revelation of the religious laws. It was on this day that everything was made clear and the path was made smooth for the seekers of truth by the verse (of the Quran):
"I have perfected your religion. I have bestowed on you my highest favors. I have chosen for you Islam as a religion."
At first the Prophet was reluctant to proclaim the ordinance to the people who, he believed, were prejudiced against it. A Qur’anic verse made the matter clear and left no room for hesitation in his mind. The verse is as follows:
"0 Prophet, deliver the message which has been revealed to you by your Lord. If you fail to do so, it will mean that you have not delivered His message to the people. God will guard you against the people."
There is no sect in Islam which believes that the Prophet failed short of delivering the message of God in such matters as the performance of prayers, the payment of zakat, the fasting or going on pilgrimage, or taking part in the jehad. We know well that he exerted his utmost in making the people offer the prayers which one cannot perform without undergoing some physical discomfort. He preached to the people to pay the zakat and the people did pay, although one does not find it easy to part with money. The people were made to fast and we know well that in fasting one has to put up with unbearable heat and thirst. He exhorted the people to go on pilgrimage, which one cannot undertake without undergoing all sorts of hardships. He ordered the people to join the jehad and they did so at the risk of their lives.
In short, he made no hesitation in the delivering of God’s message in these matters. It was only the question of Wilayat (3) which worried him the most. It was the ordinance pertaining to the Wilayat, the allegiance to Ali and the Imams from amongst his descendants, that he was not prepared to proclaim. Finding the people burning with hatred and jealousy, the Prophet hesitated to deliver this ordinance to them and he was waiting for a favorable time when the above verses were revealed to clear his doubts. If one were to suggest that the Prophet was not hesitating to deliver this ordinance, this stand will make the revelation of the above verse meaningless and superfluous.
These verses, which lay emphasis on the delivery of the ordinance, prove to us that the faith in the Wilayat is the corner stone of our religion. If one does not believe in the Wilayat and discharges all the primary and secondary duties enjoined on us by our religion, the performance of these duties will not help him in the least. His good deeds minus the belief in the Wilayat will lead him to no other place than hell-fire. Belief in the Wilayat of the Prophet is a pivot. On this hinges the whole system of our religious laws. If one has no faith in the Wilayat, the duties laid down in our religion will lose the force of application on him. Hence, the performance or non-performance of these duties will make no difference in his case.
It must be borne in mind that after the death of the Prophet, the belief in the Wilayat Of the Imams from his progeny is as important a part of our religion as the belief in the Wilayat of the Prophet in his lifetime. This is supported by the Tradition according to which the Prophet is reported to have said at Ghadeer Khum: "Am I not more precious to you than your own selves?"
This is an echo of the Qur’anic verse which says:
"The Prophet is more dear to the Mu’mins than their own selves to them." It is said that when the Mu’mins said "Yes, you are dearer to us than our own selves," in response to the Prophet’s question, he said: "Oh God, be witness to their admission." After this he said: "Ali is the master of one who acknowledges me to be his master. 0 God love those who love Ali. Help those who help Ali. Desert those who desert Ali. Let the truth accompany Ali wherever he goes."
1 Reprinted from ‘Life and Lectures of al-Mu’ayyad fid-din as-Shirazi, translated by Jawad Muscati and K.B.M.A. Moulvi, published by Ismailia Association for Pakistan, Karachi, 1966.
2 The day referred to here is known as ‘Yomul-Ghadeer, when Prophet Muhammad declared Hazrat Ali as his successor. This incident took place at Ghadeer Khum on the 18th of Zil-hajj during the Prophet's last pilgrimage, which is known in history as Hajjat ul- Wida. Ahmed bin Hanbal, founder of one of the four main Sunni schools of law, refers to this occasion in his book Masnad ul-Kabeer. He quotes Barra bin Azib, one of the companions of the Prophet: "We were in the company of the Prophet when he halted at Ghadeer Khum and led the congregational prayer. After finishing the prayer, the Prophet took the hand of Ali and raised it up saying, "Am I not dearer to Mu'mins than their own souls?" They replied "yes." Again he said, "Ali is the master of one who acknowledges me to be his master. 0 God, love those who love Ali and hate those who hate Ali." After hearing this, Omar bin Khattab went to Ali and said, "Congratulations to you, 0 son of Abu Ta'lib, you have become the master of every male and female Mu ‘min.
3 The term Wilayat means the 'power', 'authority', 'sovereignty' or 'plenipotency' of the Imam. As a theological concept in Shiism, it involves belief in Imamat, love, devotion and allegiance to the Imams, obedience to their commands and recognition of their rights (see 'A Shi'ite Creed,' tr. by Asaf A.A. Fyzee, Bombay, 1942, p. 96, footnote 6).
- Source "Africa Ismaili" July 1978
[i][b]By: Sakar Datoo
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PostPosted: Fri Apr 18, 2008 1:16 pm    Post subject: Re: "GHADIRE-E-KHUMM" Reply with quote

BISMILIAHIR RAHMANIR RAHIM---(In the Name of God the Most Compassionate the Most Merciful)

Eid e Ghadir
By: Sakar Datoo
"BOLE NABI ALI KO OOTHA KAR BAGAL TALAK
PEHCHAN LO YEHI HAI TUMHARA AMIR RAJ
HAI CHARKH PER YE DHOOM KE
EID-E-GHADIR AAJ
NAYAB HUVE NABI KE JANAB E AMIR AAJ"

The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) performed Hajj only once in his lifetime. While
returning from Hajj-tul-Wida(the last Hajj)in the 10th year of Hijra, he
received the following revelation:

YA HAIRASOOLU BALIGHMA OONZIL
ILLAYAKA MIRRABIKA WA ILM
TAFA AL FAMA BALAGHTA RISALAT HUU
WAALA HUU YA'ASIMUK MINANAAAS

O Apostle! Proclaim the Message which
has been sent to you from your Lord.
If you do it not, you have not fulfilled
and proclaimed His Mission. And Allah will
defend you from men who mean mischief.For
Allah Guides not those who reject Faith.

(HOLY QURAN 5:67)

No sooner was this Command revealed than the Holy Prophet (SAW) ordered for all the pilgrims to stop on the plains of Arafat (Ghadir e Khum). People assembled. Camels' saddlebacks were made into a stage, and ascending on this stage, the Holy Prophet (SAW) delivered a 'Khutba'. He then summoned Hazrat Amirul Momeneen Mushkil Kusha Mowla Ali to come on the stage, and raising his hand proclaimed:

"MAN KUNTO MOWLA HUU
FAHAZA ALI MOWLA HUU"


(Ali is Mowla of those of whom I am Mowla.)

And then, the Holy Prophet (SAW) made the Firman:

"O People! Hazrat Ali is Syed ul Muslimeen. He is the Imam of the believers. In
fulfilling the Commandment of Allah, I have today completed my duty, and given
you your Imam. I beseech Allah to forgive you and me."
Soon thereafter, Muslim men and women did the 'Baiyat' of Mowla Ali pledging
obedience and loyalty.

And shortly thereafter, the following was revealed upon the Holy Prophet (SAW):

"This day have I perfected for you
your religion and completed My favour
on you and chosen for you Islam as
a religion..."

(HOLY QURAN 5:3)

Thus, Imam e Awwaleen, Amirul Momeneen, Mowla Mushkil Kusha, Mowla Murtaza
Ali (AS) ascended the Throne of Imamat with the Noor of Allah vested in him, and
which Noor continues in the present Imam, Mowlana Shah Karim Al-Hussaiyni and will
continue till the Day of Judgment.

EJI MOWLA MURTAZA ALI
DUNIYAMAN JAHER THAYA
TENI KUDRAT NO NAHI KOI SHUMAAR
DIN ISLAM TIYAN THI PEDA THAYO
TE KARAN ARSH THI OOTARIYA DHOOL DHOOL
NE ZULFIQAR

(Mumeen Chetamani - Syed Imam Shah)
One time, on the 18th of Zilhaj, which was a Friday, while giving a Khutba in
Jam e Masjid in Kufa said:

"This day is the day of the Faith's perfection. Today is the day to renew and
refresh the call and promise."

That day was EID-E-GHADIR!

khuda Hafeez

[i][b]By: Sakar Datoo
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PostPosted: Wed Apr 30, 2008 9:31 am    Post subject: Re: "GHADIRE-E-KHUMM" Reply with quote

There is a quote through the Holy Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) saying:

Whoever loves `Ali, he surely loves me: and whoever loves me, he surely loves Allah, and whoever loves Allah, He will cause him to enter Paradise.

Whoever hates `Ali, he surely hates me; and whoever hates me, he surely hates Allah, and whoever hates Allah, He will cause him to inter the Fire.

And whoever hurts `Ali, he surely hurts me, and whoever hurts me, he surely hurts Allah, ( surely, those who hurt Allah and His Messenger, Allah has cursed them in the present world and the world to come, and has prepared for them a humbling chastisement
[Quran, 33:57]
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PostPosted: Fri May 02, 2008 1:01 pm    Post subject: Re: "GHADIRE-E-KHUMM" Reply with quote

The Quran Said:

" O Mankind! whorhip your
Guardian-Lord. [Imam]. Who created you
and those who came before you,
that ye may learn righteousness."


"Unto Allah belong the East and
the West, and whithersoever ye
turn, there is Allah's Countenance.
Lo! Allah is All Embracing. All-Knowing."


"Therefore remember Me, I will
remember you. Give thanks to Me,
and reject not Me."


"O ye who believe! seek help in
steadfastness and prayer. Lo!
Allah is with the steadfast."


" He is the First and the Last,
and the Outward (Zahiri)
and the Inward (Batini);
and He knows infinitely all things"


"He it is who hath send down
the profound Peace into the
hearts of the believers that
they might add faith unto their
faith"


"Verily we belong to God and
unto him we shall return" (sura "The Cow" [2]:156) Quran....


The Holy Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) said:

"I am the city of knowledge and Ali is the gate
(door) of that city. Whoever wishes to enter
that city he should come through its gate"


[[ Each Imam of the Time is Ali of the Time ]]


If you wish to know God, see him in Ali's face
O' Ali! Today I`m alive by your divine support
O`Ali, angle of blessing, what a
sing of God you are!


~Unknown~
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PostPosted: Mon Oct 27, 2008 12:46 pm    Post subject: Re: "GHADIRE-E-KHUMM" Reply with quote

After completing his last pilgrimage (Hajjatul-Wada’), Prophet [s] was leaving Makkah toward Madinah, where he and the crowd of people reached a place called Ghadir Khumm (which is close to today’s al-Juhfah). It was a place where people from different provinces used to greet each other before taking different routes for their homes.

In this place, the following verse of the Qur’an was revealed:

“O Apostle! Deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord; and if you don’t do it, you have not delivered His message (at all); and Allah will protect you from the people …” (Qur’an 5:67)

The last sentence in the above verse indicates that the Prophet [s] was mindful of the reaction of his people in delivering that message but Allah informs him not to worry, for He will protect His Messenger from people.

Then followed the key sentence denoting the clear designation of ‘Ali as the leader of the Muslim ummah. The Prophet [s] held up the hand of ‘Ali and said:

“For whoever I am his Leader (mawla), ‘Ali is his Leader (mawla).”

Immediately after the Prophet [s] finished his speech, the following verse of the Qur’an was revealed:

“Today I have perfected your religion and completed my favour upon you, and I was satisfied that Islam be your religion.” (Qur’an 5:3)

The above verse clearly indicates that Islam without clearing up matter of leadership after Prophet [s] was not complete, and completion of religion was due to announcement of the Prophet’s immediate successor.


More info and Reference:
http://www.al-islam.org/ghadir/incident.htm
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PostPosted: Sat Nov 15, 2008 9:52 pm    Post subject: Re: "GHADIRE-E-KHUMM" Reply with quote

NA'DE ALI


Encyclopaedia of Ismailism by Mumtaz Ali Tajddin

The word na'd means sound, voice or calling, and Na'de Ali means calling upon Ali. It is a sacred invocation uttered in the time of troubles and adversities. Imam Jafar Sadik said, "One who recites Na'de Ali with pure heart, his desires will be accomplished."

During the battle of Uhud, the Meccans launched a reinforced attack on the rear of the Muslim ranks, and it caused heavy havoc. It turned the scales against the Muslims, who lost courage and took their heels. Everybody deserted the Prophet in the field. He was also embosomed with the enemies and injured. On this critical moment, the Prophet is reported to have received an inspiration, suggesting to call upon Ali bin Abu Talib. The inspiration was repeated once again to call upon Ali, who is the epiphanic source of marvels. You shall find him a help for you in adversities. All anxiety and grief shall disappear through his authority, (say,) O'Ali, O'Ali, O'Ali (Na'de Aliyyun mazharul aja'ib tajid'hu avnal'laka fin nava'ib kullo hammin wa ghammin sayanjali bi wilayatika, Ya Ali, Ya Ali, Ya Ali).

Thus, the Prophet called upon Ali thrice with a loud voice. Ali appeared in twinkle of eyes and hurled himself into the fray. He shielded the Prophet and dashed the raiders. He fought with such a tenacity of courage that he singly weighed for more than the extraordinary out-numbered party of the Meccans. John Kingsley Birge writes in The Bektashi Order of Dervishes (London, 1937, p. 138) that, "On the occasion (of Uhud), it is said Muhammad became sorely wounded. As the blood flowed, the angel Gabriel came to him and spread out his wings over him, telling him to recite the prayer of "Calling on Ali," Nadi Aliyen. As soon as Muhammad recited this prayer, Ali immediately came to his rescue, drew his Zulfikar sword and hewed down the enemy, saving both Muhammad and all the Muslims."

Beholding the valiant feats of Ali in the field, the words of glorification gushed out of the mouth of the Prophet: la fata Ali la saifullah zulfikar means "There is no youth braver than Ali, and no sword like Zulfikar" (Tirmizi, 2:299). It is also said that the phrase la fata Ali la saifullah zulfikar was also recited by the angels after the end of the battle. Sachiko Murata writes in The Tao of Islam (Lahore, 2001, p. 267) that, "The perfect exemplar of chivalry is Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet, greatest warrior of Islamic history, and patron saint of the guides. According to some sources, after the battle of Uhud, when Ali demonstrated his unparallel valour, and angel was heard calling out, "There is no sword but Dhu'l-Fiqar, there is no fata but Ali."

The word futuwwa signifies generosity, liberality and nobleheartedness. It is derived from fata, meaning young man, hero or champion. The word fata appears often in the Koran: "They said, we heard a noble youth (fata) called Abraham speak of them" (21:60). Fata in its plural form (fityan) is also applied to the Companions of the Cavern (ahl al-kahf), vide 18:10, 13 and in its singular form it designates Moses' companion (18:60, 62).

The event making the Na'de Ali a cornerstone of the invocations was the battle of Khaibar in 7/629. The Muslims reduced five strongholds of the Jews with the exception of an impregnable al-Qamus under the command of Marhab. The Muslim champions failed to conquer it. The Prophet challenged that he would conquer it in 40 days. No sign of victory was seen after 39 days. The Prophet declared: "Tomorrow, I will hand over the standard of Islamic army to such a person who is an impetuous warrior and not an absconder; he befriends God and His Apostle and is also befriended by them. God is sure to grant victory on his hands." Every one of the Prophet's Companions was anxious to be signalized on the morrow as the beloved of God and His Apostle.

On next morning, the Prophet found silence in the Muslim camps. He broke up silence and asked, "Where is Ali?" He was informed that he had suffered with sore eyes and gone to cure his eyes. The Prophet became worried, and on this critical moment, he was inspired to call upon Ali, who is the epiphanic source of marvels. You shall find him a help for you in adversities. All anxiety and grief shall disappear through his authority, (say,) O'Ali, O'Ali, O'Ali (Na'de Aliyyun mazharul aja'ib tajid'hu avnal'laka fin nava'ib kullo hammin wa ghammin sayanjali bi wilayatika, Ya Ali, Ya Ali, Ya Ali). Syed Safdar Hosein writes in The Early History of Islam (Lucknow, 1933, p. 167) that, "Some traditions say that Ali was absent from the camp on this occasion, being at the time in Medina. The Prophet, however, saying Nad-i Ali, who appeared on the scene with his eyes badly sore."

The instillation of the Divine message was tinkling in the heart of the Prophet. He exclaimed, Ya Ali adriqani, Ya Ali agisani (O'Ali! Catch hold me. O'Ali come to help at once). Ali made his presence in twinkle of eyes, saying Labaik Ya Rasulillah (O' Prophet of God, I am present). The Prophet, taking Ali's head into his lap, applied the saliva of his mouth to his eyes, and then gave him the charge. Ali proceeded the front and put Marhab to sword and subdued the fort.

The word adriqani is derived from adraq yudriqu meaning to reach or avail, referring to reach to help. Its other derivative form adraqu occurs 13 times, adraqum (10:16) once and yudriqa thrice in the Koran. While the word agisani is derived from agas meaning mature or anything reaches in time. Both words thus represent a similar meaning as the Koran (8:9) says: "When you sought aid from your Lord, so He answered you" (iz tastaginsun rabbakun fartajab lequm).

The invocation, Na'de Ali does not begin with the word qul (say), but na'd (call). It is that when the Prophet was to address the people, the word qul occurred in the Koran, but when his address reserved for an individual, the word na'd was employed.

The Koran says: "And to God belong the beautiful names (asma'ul husna), so call on Him by them" (7:180). In Kawkab-i Dhurri (3:29), there is a blessed saying of Ali bin Abu Talib that, "I am the beautiful names (asma'ul husna) by which God has commanded people to call on Him." According to the report of Abul Hamra, it is mentioned in Hilyatu'l Awliya that the Prophet said, "When I was carried by night to the heaven, I saw written on the leg of the Throne:


Reference
http://www.ismaili.net/heritage/node/10645
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PostPosted: Fri Jan 09, 2009 2:02 pm    Post subject: Re: "GHADIRE-E-KHUMM" Reply with quote

The Rank of 'Ali as Indicated in Other Sayings of the Prophet

It was not only at Ghadir Khumm that the Messenger of God, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, proclaimed 'Ali, peace be upon him, to be the leader of the Muslims and his successor, officially and in the presence of the people. In the third year of his mission, when he was commanded to proclaim his prophethood openly, he appointed 'Ali, peace be upon him, as his successor. It is known that for the first three years of his prophetic mission, the Most Noble Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, did not make his summons public, instead calling people to Islam in secret. It was in the third year of his mission that he was instructed to invite his relatives to Islam openly. [1]

He thereupon instructed 'Ali, peace be upon him, to invite forty of the leading personages of Quraysh to a banquet, and forty of the Prophet's relatives accepted.

At their very first session, the nonsensical ravings of Abu Lahab, his raging anger and unbridled arrogance, caused the meeting to break up in confusion. The following day, when again everyone was gathered in accordance with the instructions of the Most Noble Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, first food was served to the guests, and then it was time for spiritual nourishment. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, stood up among his relatives, praised and supplicated the Creator, and said:

"I swear that there is none worthy of worship other than the One God, and that I am His envoy to you and the entirety of mankind. I have brought you the means of felicity in both worlds. My Lord has commanded me to summon you to the religion of Islam, and I give you glad tidings that whoever among you accepts my summons the soonest and aids me in my mission will be my brother (akhi), my legatee (wasiyyi) and my successor (khalifati)."

Those words greatly disturbed those present at the gathering, for their pride was offended, and it almost seemed that the voice of truth and the summons of prophethood would remain unheeded. Suddenly 'Ali b. Abi Talib, peace be upon him, arose and cried out: "O Muhammad, I believe in the oneness of God and your messengerhood and I distance myself from the idol worshippers."

The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, ordered 'Ali, peace be upon him, to sit down. He then repeated twice more his earlier proclamation, but those words of truth made no impact on the hearts of those gathered in that assembly. No one apart from 'Ali, peace be upon him, responded to the call of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family. ''Ali's acceptance of that summons and his declaration of agreement with the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, came at a time when he was just entering manhood. While everyone else sat voiceless and silent, he arose courageously and affirmed his acceptance of the Prophet's call a second time. Thereupon the Prophet turned to the assembly and said:

"'Ali is my brother and legatee and my successor among you. Obey him, follow him, and pay heed to his words." [2]

The reaction of the assembled guests was extremely hostile, for they wished to strip this declaration by the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, of its effect, and they therefore stood up and quit the meeting in the most unworthy and discourteous fashion. This event constitutes one of the plainest and most significant chapters in history, and none of the well known historians has ever seen fit to deny its occurrence, Not even the most narrow-minded among them have been able to excise this historic occurrence from their writings.

At that delicate and dangerous juncture, when the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, found himself alone in pursuing his great and glorious goal, he needed a helper and ally capable of supporting him powerfully and historically. Such a person could only be one who was prepared to devote himself fully to the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, and who had attained the highest degree of sincerity, courage, and obedience to God, so that once he came to exercise the office of successor, he would be a mirror reflecting all the knowledge, wisdom and moral purity of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family.

The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, knew that although some of his relatives might accept his call and come to embrace Islam, none among them would be prepared to commit himself to active collaboration or to confront the various forces arrayed against him, the idolators of Arabia and the People of the Book. Such a commitment would necessarily involve a protracted and merciless struggle against all sectors of Arab society, for none of them was prepared to tolerate the summons to change their beliefs and abandon their idols. The suggestion that they should do so could not fall to arouse their intense hostility, so that a conflict was completely inevitable, a conflict that would lead to the destruction of the possessions of anyone who allied himself with the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family.

Someone who was ready to make himself a protective shield for the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, under those unfavorable conditions and even to risk him own life had to be an extraordinary individual. Without doubt there was none among the relatives of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, who possessed the necessary qualities apart from 'Ali, peace be upon him, who was indeed destined to demonstrate in the bitter and punishing events that were to occur extraordinary and even unique qualities of heroism and devotion.

The significance of the proclamation made by the Messenger of God, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, on that day is thus clear. It permits us to understand why he undertook to name as his successor and legatee the one and only person who promised him full collaboration.

Taking into consideration the Qur'anic verse, "The Prophet says nothing out of mere fancy, and whatever he utters is the fruit of revelation from his Lord,"(53:3-4) we must conclude that on that very day, during the earliest part of his mission the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, clearly and unmistakably appointed 'Ali, peace be upon him, to be leader and guide of the people after his death.

The traditions in which this occurrence is recorded furthermore indicate that the question of succession was the direct prerogative of God and the Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, and that the people cannot resolve so momentous a matter in accordance with their own wishes. Indeed, the question was of such significance that the Imamate was proclaimed together with prophethood on one and the same occasion, in a gathering attended by the foremost relatives of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family.

Ibn Hisham, the well known historian, writes:

"'Ali b. Abi Talib was the first man to believe in the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, to pray together with him, and to affirm the veracity of that which God gave him, although on that day he was a ten year old child." [3]

Anas b. Malik remarks: "The Prophet began his mission on Monday, and 'Ali embraced Islam on Tuesday." 4]

Ibn Majah in his al-Sunan and al-Hakim in his al-Mustadrak record 'Ali, peace be upon him, to have said:

"I am the servant of God and the brother of His Messenger. I am the supremely veracious one, and none but a liar shall say the same after me. I made the prayer seven years before anyone else did." [5]

The Most Noble Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, emphasized on various occasions that the question of leadership of the ummah pertained to God alone, and that he played no role in this respect.

al-Tabari records the following in his history:

"A tribal chief by the name of al-Akhnas made his allegiance and obedience to the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, conditional on the leadership of the ummah being assigned to him after the death of the Prophet The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, responded: 'This is a matter that belongs to God; He will appoint to this office whomever He deems fit' The chief in question was disappointed and he sent a message to the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, saying that it was unacceptable that he should toil and exert himself only to see the leadership go elsewhere." [6]

Can it then be permissible to prefer a leader chosen by the people to the one selected by God and His Messenger, or to place that lofty personage under the authority of someone else, obliging him to obey him and follow his command? The Qur'an clearly proclaims: "None has free choice when confronted with the command of God and His Messenger. Whosoever disobeys the command of God and His Messenger falls prey to obvious misguidance." (33:34)

When, therefore, God selects a certain person to be the guide and leader of the people, that person is the caliph." even if the Muslim community does not make it possible for him to exercise governmental authority. It is the same as in., the case of prophethood: if God appoints a person as prophet, that person is a prophet, even if people do not believe in him and refuse to obey him.

Another precious utterance in which the Messenger of God, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, emphasizes to the Islamic ummah that 'Ali, peace be upon him, is their leader and ruler is the hadith known as the "hadith of the Rank" (hadith al-manzilah). The circumstances under which it arose are the following:

One day the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, learned that the armies of Byzantium were mobilizing for an attack on Madinah in the hope of gaining a swift victory. Upon hearing this, he ordered precautions to be taken and with a single order he was able to assemble a large force of Muslims to confront the enemy.

At the same time, a report reached the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, that the Hypocrites were also gathering their forces with the aim of causing disorder in the city during the anticipated absence of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, by killing and inciting people to violence.

The Most Noble Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, appointed 'Ali, peace be upon him, to guard the city on his behalf, and he ordered that he should remain in Madinah until he returned, administering the affairs of the Muslims. When the Hypocrites realized that their treacherous plans had been divulged, they began spreading idle rumors in the hope of weakening 'Ali's position. They hinted that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, was angry with 'Ali, peace be upon him, and that it was for this reason that he had not been permitted to accompany him on a major military expedition.

'Ali, peace be upon him, was greatly troubled and saddened by the circulation of these rumors, and he hastened to the presence of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, who had already left Madinah. He told him what had happened, and with a single historic sentence he clarified the special position of 'Ali, peace be upon him, once and for all:

"Are you not content that your relation to me shall be like the relation of Harun to Musa, excepting only that there shall be no prophet after me?"

At the end of this hadith there is a sentence that many Sunni scholars have recorded in their books:

"It is not fitting that I should depart without your being my deputy and successor." [7]

Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas, who was an obstinate enemy of 'Ali peace be upon him, mentions the same hadith in order to demonstrate his high standing.

When Mu'awiyah wanted to have the people of Makkah swear allegiance to Yazid, he convened an assembly of some of the Companions at the place known as al-Nadwah. He began by condemning and criticizing 'Ali, peace be upon him, expecting Sa'd to agree with him at least on this point. But contrary to his expectations, Sa'd turned to Mu'awiyah and said: "Whenever I recall three luminous moments in the life of 'Ali, peace be upon him, I wish from the bottom of my heart that they had been mine. The first of the three came on that day when the Messenger of God, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, said to 'Ali, peace be upon him, 'Your relation to me shall be like the relation of Harun to Musa, excepting only that there shall be no prophet after me.'

"The second came on the plain of Khaybar when the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, said: 'Tomorrow I will entrust the banner to one who loves God and His Prophet and whom God and His Prophet love. He will be the conqueror of Khaybar, for he never turns his back on the enemy.'

"The third was on the day when the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, disputed with the Christians of Najran. He gathered 'Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn, peace be upon them all, around him, and presented them to the divine presence, saying, 'O Lord, these are the people of my house.'" [8]

In the hadith comparing his relation with 'Ali to that of Musa (Moses) with Harun (Aaron), the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, had implicitly designated 'Ali as his brother, assistant and general deputy as well as leader of the ummah, and the fact that he excepted only prophethood indicates the comprehensive nature of the station he awarded to 'Ali, peace be upon him.

If we refer to the Qur'an, we will see that God Almighty granted all the requests Musa made on him, and it was in accordance with one such request that He appointed Harun the helper, assistant, deputy and successor of Musa among his people, and even made him a prophet. [9] Since Harun was the leader of all the Bani Isra'il, the situation of 'Ali, peace be upon him, was analogous. Just like the Most Noble Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, he was the ruler of all the Muslims, and his acting on his behalf as his deputy when he was not present was therefore entirely natural, a consequence of his comprehensive deputyship. Likewise, the deputyship exercized by Harun when Musa went to the place of assignation was not temporary in nature.

Someone might be of the view that 'Ali's deputyship was restricted to the period that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, was absent from Madinah, so that the hadith under discussion cannot be taken as having general significance or as evidence that he was the Prophet's successor.

To this we answer that whenever the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, left the Islamic capital, he would always appoint someone to act as his deputy. If by comparing 'Ali, peace be upon him, to Harun, the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, had intended nothing more than the usual appointment of a deputy, restricted in his authority to Madinah for the period of the Prophet's absence, why did he not use a similar expression for those other favored Companions he would appoint as deputy? Why did he not use the same or similar words to describe the services they rendered?

History provides no evidence that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, uttered these words with respect to anyone but 'Ali, peace be upon him. The simple truth of the matter is that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, made use of the occasion to proclaim the virtues of 'Ali, to appoint him as his successor, and to make plain that he was his sole legatee. If the Prophet had intended to appoint him only as his deputy for a limited time, it would have made no sense for prophethood to be excluded from the prerogatives of his office. The meaning then would have been something improbable like the following: "'Ali, stand ill as my deputy for a while until I return, but you will not be a prophet after me." The exception made of prophethood makes sense only if the various powers and attributes of Harun should continue to pertain to 'Ali after the death of the Prophet.

Moreover, this expression was used by the Prophet in appointing 'Ali as his successor on other occasions as well, not simply when assigning him deputyship in Madinah, as history bears witness. For example, in the earliest days of the Hijrah, when the Prophet caused every Muslim to conclude a pact of brotherhood with another Muslim, 'Ali hastened sorrowfully to the presence of the Prophet and said: "How is it that you have assigned every Muslim a brother, but have not chosen anyone to be my brother?" In the presence of a group of Companions, the Prophet then replied: "I swear by the Lord Who sent me with the message of truth, I delayed the matter only in order to make you my brother. You are to me as Harun was to Musa, excepting only that there shall be no prophet after me. You are my heir and my brother. " [10]

This hadith demonstrates among other things that the barring of 'Ali from prophethood was not because of any unfitness on his part, but only to the fact that Muhnammad, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, was the Seal of the Prophets. Had prophethood not been sealed with him, 'Ali would doubtless have been a prophet.

The Messenger of God, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, called 'Ali, peace be upon him, his brother on a number of occasions.

Thus we read in the Sirah of al-Halabi:

"After the Prophet concluded pacts of brotherhood among the Companions (for example between Abu Bakr and 'Umar, Usayd b. Hudayr and Zayd b. al-Harithah, Abd al-Rahman bn 'Awf and Sa'd b. al-Rabi', and Abu 'Ubaydah and Sa'd b. Mu'adh), he took 'Ali by the hand and proclaimed, 'This is my brother.' Thereafter 'Ali and the Messenger of God were brothers." [11]

On another occasion, when discussing a matter that concerned 'Ali, his brother Ja'far, and Zayd b. al-Harithah, the Prophet addressed ''Ali as follows: "As for you, O 'Ali, you are my brother and comrade." [12]

On yet another occasion he said: "You will be my brother and companion in Paradise." [13]

Let us now see what is meant by brotherhood in this context.

In order to abolish and obliterate all forms of tribal distinction and privilege which were contrary to the norms of divine justice, the Prophet undertook a number of necessary measures, above all by establishing a special type of brotherhood among the Muslims after the migration to Madinah. It was his wish to bring a comprehensive brotherhood into being in the Islamic ummah, not as an abstract idea but as a palpable and objective reality. By the coming together of two adoptive brothers, who were not linked by any ties of blood or kinship but only by closeness to God and belief in the truths of His religion, the new brotherhood of Islam began to blossom in a practical form. Spiritual brotherhood became the equivalent of genealogical kinship. The links between two adoptive brothers, each hailing from a different tribe and town, contributed moreover to a general expansion of friendship and affection between all the members of the two different tribes, so that a network of deep spiritual and emotional links came into being.

The brotherhood of the Most Noble Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, and 'Ali, peace be upon him, had come into being no less than ten years before the Hijrah, when the Prophet convened a gathering of his relatives at his house in order to request their aid. The Prophet's purpose in establishing this fraternal link with 'Ali was without any doubt different from the goal of creating closeness between two tribes or the people of two cities that he pursued in Madinah, not least because no such gap or difference separated him from 'Ali. They were already related to each other as cousins and firm, strong ties already existed between them.

The reason for the brotherhood between the Prophet and 'Ali must therefore have been spiritual and intellectual affinity, a mutual inward attraction. It was 'Ali who more than anyone else resembled the great founder of Islam with respect to his spiritual qualities and knowledge, his devotion and insight. The brotherhood of the Prophet with 'Ali had therefore a special significance that extended beyond this world to the plain of resurrection and the realm of the hereafter. Thus al-Hakim records in his al-Mustadrak the following remark addressed to 'Ali by the Messenger of God, handed down by two separate authentic chains of transmission: "You are my brother in this world and the hereafter." [14]

One day when Abu Bakr, 'Umar and Abu 'Ubaydah were present, the Prophet placed his hand on the shoulder of 'Ali and said: "O 'Ali, you are the first person who accepted Islam and believed in me; you are to me as Harun was to Musa." [15]

Once 'Umar saw a man insulting 'Ali b. Abi Talib. 'Umar told him: "You are a hypocrite, for I heard the Messenger of God say to 'Ali, 'Only 'Ali is to me as Harun was to Musa, excepting only that there shall be no prophet after me."' [16]

A point to be noted in this tradition is that since the Arabic particle innama (only) implies exclusivity, the Prophet cannot have meant 'Ali's deputyship to be temporary, for he also appointed others as his deputies from time to time. 'Umar's words also imply that he understood the Prophet's declaration to make 'Ali his equal in all respects except prophethood, for he told the man who insulted 'Ali, "You are a hypocrite." His hypocrisy was indeed worse than open unbelief.

However high be the rank of a believer, to insult him entails neither unbelief nor hypocrisy. 'Umar and many of the Companions used to insult each other, but no one ever interpreted this kind of behavior as entailing unbelief or hypocrisy. However, insulting the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, does indeed entail unbelief, and it can therefore be said that 'Umar b. al-Khattab understood the words of the Prophet to mean that 'Ali, peace be upon him, had the same rank as the Prophet himself.

The hadith of the Ark (hadith al-safinah) is one more of the well-known and universally accepted traditions found in the books of celebrated Sunni scholars that establish the worthiness of the Prophet's family for assuming the leadership and direction of the Islamic ummah, Abu Dharr al-Ghifari relates the Prophet to have said: "The People of my Household are for you like the Ark of Nuh (Noah). Whoever embarks on it will be saved and whoever turns away from it will be drowned." [17]

With these words the Prophet depicts clearly the rank of his family and their fundamental role in guiding mankind and giving direction to the Islamic ummah. He warns against the perilous consequences of abondoning the lofty and salvific persons of his house, a course that will lead whoever chooses it to darkness and misguidance.

The sense of comparing the People of the House (Ahl al-Bayt) to the Ark of Nuh is that whoever follows their guidelines in fulfilling his religious duties and whose acts conforms to their commands is guaranteed salvation from the awesome punishment that awaits on the Day of Judgement Whoever rebels and disobeys, who distances himself from that axis of orientation, is like the one who sought refuge from the dreadful tempest on the mountaintops instead of in the Ark of Nuh. The only difference is that the latter met his death by drowning, while the former will be submerged in the torment of hellfire and eternal perdition.

The Most Noble Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, said in description of the People of his House:

"The People of my House are like the stars that help men find their way on sea and dry land and deliver them from misguidance and errance." [18]

He said further. "Whoever seeks refuge with the People of my House will be safe from misguidance and ruin, and whoever opposes them will fall prey to discord and divergence and join the party of Satan." [19]

From the traditions just cited can be deduced also the dimensions of the House, for whoever is exposed to the possibility of committing error and sin, of deviating from the clear guidelines laid down by the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, will never be able to save others from falling into the pit of misery and misguidance or to bring about that radical change in modes of thought, feeling and social organization that is needed to ensure eternal felicity.

It would be possible to object against the Shi'ah or to condemn them for the path they have elected only if their obedience to the People of the Prophet's House were inspired by something other than his instructions and recommendations. Such, however, is not the case.

When the first caliph appointed the second caliph as his successor, what word or sentence did he use? Did he use more than one sentence to indicate that the office of caliphate and leadership of the Muslims that he had exercised now fell to the lot of 'Umar? By contrast, there are numerous expressions and sentences from the Prophet, clear and explicit in meaning, concerning 'Ali; do they not suffice to prove his leadership and succession? The words of the Prophet are far clearer and more explicit than those used by the first caliph; are they not enough to prove at least the claim of 'Ali to religious leadership? Fair-minded and intelligent people can judge for themselves.

The scholars and leading figures of the Sunni community have regarded it as necessary to follow the views and teachings of the founders of the four schools of Sunni law, even though there is no hadith from the Messenger of God, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, enjoining such obedience. We can therefore discern no adequate reason for these same scholars to ignore the teachings of the People of the Prophet's House, in the face of his clear declaration that the Our'an and the People of the House will remain inextricably linked until the Day of Judgement. [20]

What is even more remarkable is that some of the founders of the four legal schools were themselves students of the People of the House and benefited from their erudition. A leading Sunni scholar remarks:

"All Islamic scholars, irrespective of the school to which they belong, are unanimously agreed on the accomplishments and learning of Imam al-Sadiq, peace be upon him. Sunni Imams who were his contemporaries studied with him and derived knowledge from him. Malik learned from him, as did some of the contemporaries of Malik such as Sufyan b.

'Uyaynah, Sufyan al-Thawri, and many others. Abu Hanifah, whose lifetime more or less corresponded to that of Imam al-Sadiq, peace be upon him, studied religious knowledge with him and regarded him as the most learned man of the age." [21]

Ibn Hajar, another Sunni scholar, relates Imam al-Shafi'i to have said: "The Household of the Prophet is my means of salvation, and they are my means of drawing near to the Prophet. It is my hope that for their sake the record of my deeds will be given into my right hand on the Day of Judgement." [22]

Again al-Shafi'i said: "O People of the Prophet's House, love for you has been made obligatory by God through mention in the Qur'an. Sufficient cause of pride it is for you that whoever fails to invoke blessings on you in his prayer will fail to have his devotions (salat) accepted." [23]

Unlike the views of the mujtahids who founded the four Sunni schools, there is no contradiction or divergence among the teachings of the People of the House, for they were not engaged in independent reasoning on the ordinances of religion. Their teachings are identical with those of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, of which the Imams of the People of the House were infallibly aware. The utterances of the Imams cannot therefore be placed on the same level as the views of the founders of the four Sunni schools.

In view of all this, how can it be justified to ignore and neglect the teachings of the People of the House?


Reference

[1] See Qur'an, 26:214.

[2] Ahmad b. Hanbal, al-Musnad, Vol. I, pp. 111, 159. Ibn al-Athir, al-Kamil, Vol. II, p.22; al-Tabari, al-Tafsir, Vol. II, p. 216; Abu al-Fida', al-Tarikh, Vol. I, p. 119; al-Ganji, Kifayatal-Talib, p.89. al-Nasa'i, al-Khasa'is, p. 18; al-Halabi, al-Sirah, Vol. I, p.304; Ibn Abi 'l-Hadid, Sharh, Vol. III, p. 255; al-Suyuti, Jam' al-Jawami', Vol. VI, p. 408; al-Khifaji, Sharh al-Shifa', Vol. III, p. 37.

[3] Ibn Hisham, al-Sirah, Vol. I, p.245.

[4] al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak, Vol. III, p. 312.

[5] Ibn Majah, al-Sunan, Vol. I, p. 44; al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak, Vol. III, p. 112.

[6] al-Tabari, Tarikh, Vol. II, p. 172.

[7] al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak, Vol. III, p. 63; al-Nasa'i, al-Khasa'is ., p. 63; al-Hamawini, Fara'id al-simtayn, Vol. I, p. 328 al-Dhahabi, Talkhis al-Mustadrak, Vol. III, p. 132; Ahmad b. Hanbal, al-Musnad, Vol. I, p. 331; al-Khwarazmi, al-Manaqib, p. 72; al-Ganji, Kifayat al-Talib, p. 116; Ibn Asakir, al-Tarikh al-Kabir, Vol. I, p. 203; al-Biladhuri, Ansab al-Ashraf, Vol. II, p. 106; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidayah, Vol. VII, p. 338; al-'Asqalani, al-Isabah, Vol. II, p.509.

[8] Muslim, al-Sahih, Vol. VII, p. 120; Ibn 'Asakir, al-Tarikh al-Kabir, Vol. I, p. 334; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidayah, Vol. VII, p. 341; al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-'Ummal, Vol. XIII, p. 163; Ibn Majah, al-Sunan, Vol. I, p.58; al-Nasa'i, al-Khasa'is, p.50; al-Qunduzi, Yanabi' al-Mawaddah, p. 51.

[9] See Qur'an, 20:29-32.

[10] al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-'Ummal, Vol. V, p.31.

[11] al-Halabi, al-Sirah, Vol. II, p. 97. Ibn Hisham, al-Sirah, Vol. I, p.505.

[12] Ibn Sa'd, al-Tabaqat, Vol. VIII, p. 114.

[13] Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, al-Isti'ab, Vol. II, p. 460; al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Tarikh Baghdadi, Vol. XII, p. 268; al-Firuzabadi, Fada'il al-Khhamsah, Vol. I, p.114.

[14] al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak, Vol. III, p. 414; al-Tirmidhi, Jami' al-Sahih, Vol. V

[15] al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-'Ummal, Vol. VI, p. 395.

[16] Ibn , Asakir, al-Tarikh al-Kabir, Vol. I, pp. 360-61; al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Tarikh Baghdad, Vol. VII, p.453.

[17] al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-'Ummal, Vol. I, p. 250; Ibn Hajar, al-Sawa'iq, p. 75; al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak, Vol. III, p. 343; al-Qunduzi, Yanabi' al-Mawaddah, p. 257. Ibn al-Sabbagh, al-Fusul al-Muhimmah, p. 10; al-Sabban, Is'af al-Raghibin, p. 111; al-Shiblanji, Nur al-Absar, p. 114.

[18] Ibn Hajar, al-Sawa'iq, p. 140; al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak, Vol. III, p. 149.

[19] Ibn Hajar, al-Sawa'iq, p. 140; al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak, Vol. III, p. 149.

[20] Ahmad b. Hanbal, al-Musnad, Vol. V, p. 181.

[21] Shaykh Muhammad Abu Zahrah, al-Imam al-Sadiq, p.66.

[23] Ibn Hajar, al-Sawa'iq, p. 108. See too al-Firuzabadi, Fada'il al-Khamsah, Vol. II, p.81.

[24] al-Shiblanji, Nur al-Absar, p. 104.

Imamat and Leadership

by Sayyid Mujtaba Musavi Lari
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The Proclamation of 'Ali's Leadership by the Prophet
After the death of the Most Noble Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, and the departure of that great leader from the midst of society, the interests of Islam and the ummah made it imperative that a distinguished and worthy leader, a being overflowing with knowledge and piety, should assume the governance of the newly emergent Islamic movement which needed continued instruction. This was necessary in order to guarantee the continuity of Islam, to safeguard it from deviation, to prevent the ummah from falling back into its former reprehensible social and moral habits, and to reinforce as much as possible the Islamic socio-political order.

To leave the question of leadership to a community that had only recently escaped the fetters of Jahiliyyah and from whose spirit and soul the traces of Jahili beliefs had not yet disappeared, would not have sufficed to secure the lofty aims of the Prophet or to protect the religion from the danger of negative forces.

The only path was then for a worthy personality, erudite in all matters concerning the message, equipped with intelligence and extensive religious knowledge, possessed of a luminous faith and exempt from error just like the founder of Islam, should gather the reins of affairs in his hands in order to pursue with care and subtlety the task of training and educating men and solve the problems and questions concerning the shari'ah that might arise during the period of his governance.

Historical evidence shows that the Messenger of God, on his return from the Farewell Pilgrimage, fulfilled this need on the eighteenth day of Dhu 'l-Hijjah by designating his legatee and successor in accordance with divine command, thus showing the people the path to be followed for the ummah to gain felicity.

In the tenth year of the Hijrah, which was also the last year in the life of the Beloved Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, he decided to participate in the great Islamic gathering that was to be held in Makkah. Once it became known that the Prophet was setting out for the Ka'bah, throngs of Muslims from near and far set out in the direction of Madinah in order to have the honor of travelling with him, to learn the pilgrimage rites from him, and to perform that great ritual of Islam directly in his presence.

Finally the great caravan set out, composed of the Migrants (muhajirun), the Helpers (ansar), and the other Muslims who were leaving Madinah in the company of their leader, and they advanced towards Makkah. After entering the city, they began their acts of worship at the Ka'bah. During those days the city of Makkah witnessed one of the most glorious of Islamic ceremonies, performed by thousands of Muslims who were gathered around their leader like the thunderous waves of an ocean. The Prophet too was proud in front of his Lord that on such a day he was able to see the results of his unremitting efforts and toil.

After that year's pilgrimage had been completed - the pilgrimage known as the Farewell Pilgrimage - the Prophet left the House of God together with the great crowd of pilgrims (hujjaj), estimated by historians to have numbered between ninety and one hundred and twenty thousand, and prepared to return to Madinah. The caravan traversed several valleys and arrived at a waterless plain known as Ghadir Khumm. [11] It was then that the messenger of revelation came to the Prophet and ordered him to halt. The Prophet stopped the caravan and waited for the stragglers to catch up with the main body.

This sudden halt in that torrid landscape beneath the burning midday sun astonished the weary travellers, but it was not long before Jibril (Gabriel) the trustworthy angel of revelation conveyed to the pure soul of the Prophet a heavenly message the categorical and clear command of the Creator that he should appoint and announce his legatee and successor:

O Messenger of God, convey to mankind the command that God has sent you. If you do not do so, you will not have conveyed the prophetic message. God will protect you from the harm men might cause you.(5:67)

Close attention to the content of this verse demonstrates to us the important truth that the proclamation of this particular divine message was of such importance and gravity that if the Prophet were to shrink from conveying it, it would be equivalent to his refraining from fulfilling his entire prophetic mission, while conveying it to the ummah was tantamount to the completion of that mission.

In the verse, the Most Noble Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, is reminded of the extraordinary significance of the task that has been assigned to him, and he is guaranteed protection from any dangers that might result from proclaiming the message.

At the same time, not more than a few days were left in the glorious life of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, for he died seventy days after the event of Ghadir Khumm. All that he had achieved in the course of twenty three years since the beginning of revelation, all that man needed for his guidance and felicity, was now at the disposal of mankind. Only one particular matter remained, the proclamation of which would complete his prophetic mission and bring his task to complete fruition.

It was in addition probable that while fulfilling the instructions he had received the Prophet would be attacked or harmed by evil wishers, and in order to reinforce his determination God informed him that He would protect him and guard him against being harmed.

The content of those instructions must have been particularly sensitive in order for their fulfillment to have been coterminous with the entirety of the Prophet's mission and for the failure to proclaim them to have damaged and diminish prophethood itself. Moreover, the Arab mentality prevailing at the time tended to regard the aged persons of each tribe as best suited for positions of leadership and not to consider younger persons as qualified; this feature hardly constituted a favorable climate for the proclamation of God's command.

The spirit of the Prophet was also troubled and surely pained by certain bitter memories. He had not yet forgotten the negative attitude of certain narrow minded people to the appointment of Usamah and Attab b. Usayb as commanders, for when he appointed the former as commander of the army and the latter as commander of Makkah, some of the Companions raised their voices in protest.

All of these constituted factors that made the declaration of 'Ali b. Abi Talib, peace be upon him, someone as young as thirty three years of age, a formidable and even intimidating task for the Prophet.

In addition, many of those who had now joined the ranks of the Muslims and entered the circle of the Prophet's Companions, had earlier fought against 'Ali, peace be upon him, which further increased the delicacy of the situation; their hearts were troubled by the memory of those events and fanned the flames of hatred within them.

Despite all those unfavorable circumstances, the divine will decreed that the best and most exalted personage who through the grace of God had attained the highest spiritual station next to the Prophet should be appointed as his successor, so that by the designation of this great man to lead the ummah, the universal message of the Prophet should be completed.

According not only to Shi'i scholars of hadith but also certain Sunni scholars as well, [12] the Qur'anic verse in question was revealed on the day of Ghadir Khumm, the day on which the Prophet, the veracity of whose speech is guaranteed by God Himself, received the divine command, by way of revelation and in accordance with wisdom, to expound the last and most essential foundation of Islam by presenting 'Ali, peace be upon him, to the people as his successor.

Yes, that personage whose being had never been polluted by polytheism or sin, whose entire life had been devoted to disseminating the teachings of religion and promoting Islam, who was a complete reflection of the Messenger of God he was the one fitted to preserve the laws and norms of religion, to assume the leadership of humanity as it advanced toward perfection and salvation. It was his form alone that was worthy of putting on the garb of Imamate and leadership.

The time for the noon prayer arrived, and the great throng that had descended at Ghadir Khumm performed the prayer behind the Prophet. [13] Then the Prophet advanced to the middle of the crowd that filled the whole plain in anticipation of an historic event, in order to implement the categorical command of God. He mounted a pulpit that had been improvised from camel litters, in order for everyone to be able to see and to hear him.

He then began to deliver his address, in powerful, clear and compelling tones, so that everyone was able to hear him or at least be aware of what was transpiring.

After praising and thanking God, to whom alone belong absolute power, wisdom and vision, and whose governance, knowledge and perception are immune to defect and decline, he said:

"O people, I will soon be responding to the call of my Lord and departing from your midst. I will be held to account, as you too will be. Will you not bear witness that there is none worthy of worship other than God, the One and Unique? Do you not testify that Muhammad is His servant and messenger? Are not paradise, hellfire and death all realities? Is it not true the day of requital and resurrection will definitely come, and that God will restore to life those who lie buried in the ground?"

The voice of the multitude arose in response: "Indeed we bear witness to all of that."

Then he continued: "Now that the Day of Requital lies before us, and you believe in the raising of the dead on the Plain of Resurrection and that you will enter the presence of your prophet on that day, pay heed to the manner in which you treat the two weighty (thaqalayn) and precious legacies I leave you as I depart for the hereafter. [14]

"That which is the greater of the two is the Book of God. It is in your hands as well as His, so lay hold of it firmly lest you fall into misguidance. The lesser of the two legacies is my progeny and the people of my household. God has informed me that my two legacies shall never be separated from each other until the Day of Resurrection.

"O people, do not turn away from these two legacies. As long as you have recourse to them, you will never go astray the Book of God and my family." [15]

At this point, the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, called 'Ali, peace be upon him, to his side. He took hold of his hand and raised it up high, thereby presenting him with all his qualities and attributes to the gathered throng. Then the Messenger of God asked: "O people, who is more deserving of the believers than their own persons?" They answered: "God and His Messenger know better." He continued: "For whomsoever I was his master 'Ali is now his master." [16]

God, love whomsoever loves 'Ali and be the enemy of whoever is 'Ali's enemy. [17] O God, aid whoever aids him and humble his enemies. [18] O God, make him the pivot of truth." [19]

After completing his speech, the Prophet requested the people to convey what he had said to those who were absent.

The one who was thus installed in the seat of Islamic leadership on that day, in accordance with divine command and by virtue of the Prophet's declaration, who was entrusted with the guidance of the ummah, was 'Ali. The most worthy and renowned man in the Islamic community, he who was a treasury of knowledge and an incarnation of virtue, had been selected as the leader of the Muslims, and by proclaiming the important matter of Imamate and caliphate the Prophet had given a decisive and binding command to the ummah.

The assembled multitude had not begun to disperse when the agent of revelation revealed this verse to the Prophet:

Today I have perfected for you your religion, completed for you My bounty, and chosen Islam for you as religion. (5:3) [20]

According to al-Ya'qubi, "This verse, revealed at Ghadir Khumm, was the last verse to be revealed to the Most Noble Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him and his family." [21]

The Prophet left the place where he was standing, while all around the sound of takbir was to be heard as the pilgrims expressed their warm and enthusiastic feelings towards 'Ali, peace be upon him. People came up to him in groups and congratulated him on his appointment as leader, addressing him as their master and the master of every believer, man and woman.

The well known poet Hassan b. Thabit who was present on that occasion, composed and recited to the people, with the permission of the Prophet, an eloquent ode in honor of the auspicious event.

The verse just cited, which declares how God has on this day perfected His religion and completed His blessing, permits us to understand the full significance of what had transpired. A momentous happening must have occurred for the Qur'an to qualify it in such terms, for the Islam that God has chosen and approved was the Islam of that day. the religion of truth had attained its perfection through the appointment of 'Ali, peace be upon him, and God's blessing to mankind had been completed through his selection as the legatee (wasiyy) of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family.

Both universally accepted hadith and reliable books of history to which Shi'is and Sunnis alike refer emphasize that this verse was revealed at Ghadir Khumm on the day that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, had entrusted 'Ali, peace be upon him, with the responsibility of governing and leading the ummah after himself. Surah al-Ma'idah, to the early part of which this verse belongs, is the last surah to have been revealed to the Most Noble Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, in the unanimous view of the exegetes. This means that its revelation took during the last days of his blessed life, and no further command was revealed to him thereafter by his Lord.

The view held by some that the verse refers to the beginning of his prophetic mission, meaning that it was on that day that God's religion was perfected and His blessing completed, is baseless, and utterly incompatible both with the historical facts and the correct interpretation of the verse. The day on which the mission of the Prophet began was the beginning of the divine blessing, not its culmination, an extremely important difference. What is at issue in the verse is the completion of the blessing and the perfection of religion; now that this matter has been accomplished, Islam is chosen and approved as religion for mankind. Neither history nor hadith can support the opposing view.

The momentous scene that Ghadir Khumm witnessed and the task that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, fulfilled on that day had long lasting consequences for the history of Islam. Apart from those who are prisoners to fanaticism and mental stagnation, no historian who is concerned with the recording of events and the preservation of historical fact can ignore what took place on that day or conceal the matters that are connected with it. During the early centuries of Islamic history, the day of Ghadir Khumm was well known and accepted as an auspicious occasion, and there are many indications that all Muslims participated in celebrating it.

Thus the well known historian Ibn Khallikan describes the eighteenth of Dhu 'l-Hijjah as the Day of Ghadir Khumm, [22] and al-Mas'udi mentions the night of the same day as the night of the festival of Ghadir Khumm. [23] Abu Rayhan al-Biruni, the famous Iranian scholar of the fifth century, includes the festival of Ghadir Khumm among the festivals that the Muslims celebrated in his time.[24] In his Matalib al-Su'ul, the Shafi'i scholar Ibn Talhah writes: "The day of Ghadir Khumm is a festive day and an historic occasion, for it was then that the Messenger of God, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, clearly and explicitly nominated 'Ali, peace be upon him, as Imam and leader of the Muslims after him." [25]

Now let us see what the Messenger of God meant by the word "master" (mawla) when he said: "For whomsoever I was his master, 'Ali is now his master." Does it mean one who has prior rights of disposition, as the concomitant of the absolute governance of one person over another, or simply a helper and friend?

By referring to the Qur'an we can see that the first meaning is the correct one, for God says of the Prophet: "The Prophet has a greater claim to the souls of the believers than the believers themselves."(33:6) In addition, there are many places in the Qur'an where the word mawla occurs with the meaning of wali or ruler. [26]

The one who has a greater claim on the souls of others than they do themselves must have a priori a similar claim to their property, and will therefore necessarily have the right of absolute governance over them, a governance that permits no disobedience to his orders and commands.

The rank that this implies was first granted by God to His Prophet; it was God who endowed him with authority over the lives and property of the believers and gave him prior rights of disposition in every respect.

There are numerous indications and proofs that the meaning of wali in the traditions relating to Ghadir Khumm is identical to awla ("has a greater claim") in the verse we have just cited. Just as the Messenger of God, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, enjoyed absolute governance based on the Qur'an, so too did the Commander of the Faithful, 'Ali, peace be upon him, have the same rank and attribute, the only difference being that with the sealing of prophethood with the termination of the Prophet's mission, the gate of prophethood was closed. With this single exception, all the offices of the Prophet were transferred to 'Ali.

The first citation that clarifies the meaning of wali in the hadith is a sentence uttered by the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, before he proclaimed 'Ali, peace be upon him, to be his successor. He asked: "Do I not have greater claims on you than your own selves?"

Here, while proclaiming his own authority over the Muslims, after obtaining their assent to the fact that he had greater claims on them than their own selves, he added: "For whomsoever I was his master, 'Ali is his master." The meaning of 'Ali, peace be upon him, being master must necessarily include the sense of awla ("having greater claims"), the same station that the Prophet himself had with respect to the believers. If the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, had intended something else, there would have been no reason for him first to gain assent to his own possession of "greater claims". Could the meaning of mawla possibly be a simple friendship that exists among Muslims?

At the beginning of his address to the people, the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, said: "Do you bear witness that there is none worthy of worship other than God, the One and unique, and do you believe that Muhammad is His servant and messenger and that paradise and hellfire are both realities?"

Could the reason for posing these questions have anything other than preparing the people to accept a principle comparable to those contained in the questions? Was it not the purpose of the Messenger of God, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, to make the people understand that acceptance of the caliphate and successorship of 'Ali, peace be upon him, which he was about to announce was on the same level as those three principles divine unity, prophethood, and resurrection?

If what the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, meant by mawla nothing more than friend and protector, friendship with 'Ali would have been exactly the same as any other friendship prevailing among the believers since the very beginning of Islam as part of Islamic brotherhood. would have been no need to proclaim it in such a vast gathering, preceded by all kinds of detailed prefatory remarks and gaining the assent of the people to the three basic principles.

Furthermore, the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and mentioned his own death before presenting 'Ali, peace be upon him, to that great assembly he informed those present that he would soon be quitting this transitory realm. By making this statement, he wished in reality to fill the vacuum of leadership that would arise after him by appointing 'Ali, peace be upon him, as his successor. Mere friendship and love for 'Ali be upon him, could not alone have played a crucial role in Islamic society. Would it have been in any way necessary for the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, to deliver a lengthy speech under the burning sun to an assembly of one hundred thousand people simply to expound love for 'Ali, be u him? Had not the Qur'an already proclaimed the believers to be friends and brothers to each other?

In view of all these consideration, it is not rationally acceptable that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, should on that occasion have been speaking of love for 'Ali, peace be upon him.

Moreover, after the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, had finished speaking, a large number of the Companions came up to 'Ali, peace be upon him, and offered him their felicitations in a stream that continued until it was time for the sunset prayer. Abu Bakr, 'Uthman, Talhah and al-Zubayr were among those who offered 'Ali, peace be upon him, their on being appointed successor. 'Umar was among the first to address 'Ali, saying: "Well done, son of Abu Talib! Congratulation on this appointment; you have become the master of every believer, man and woman alike." [27]

Had 'Ali, peace be upon him, gained any other appointment at that time which might have qualified him for these congratulations? Was not 'Ali, peace be upon him, known until that point as an ordinary Muslim deserving of friendship like any other?

Hassan b. Thabit, the celebrated poet of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, was present among the pilgrims, and he understood the word mawla to imply the Imamate and leadership, He said in one of his poems: "The Prophet turned to the people and said to 'Ali 'Arise! I make you henceforth the leader and guide of the people.'"

If one studies the whole of the Prophet's speech with an open mind, free of prejudice and preconceived notions, and examines the evidence and indications it contains, he cannot fail to derive but a single meaning from the word mawla as applied to 'Ali b. Abi Talib, peace be upon him: the one who has prior rights of disposition and the right of absolute governance.

If the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, did not use the word "ruler" at Ghadir Khumm when referring to 'Ali, peace be upon him, saying, for example, "after me 'Ali will be your ruler," it is because he generally used the word amir (commander) in the context of military affairs and the organization of the pilgrimage, whereas the word wilayah (authority or governance) was used in connection with the affairs of the ummah and indeed he referred to himself as the wali of the believers. Not even God referred to the prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, as a ruler in the Qur'an, nor did the Prophet ever call himself a ruler or commander in any hadith. In fact the Qur'an says explicitly. "It is God and His Messenger alone who are your wali, and those who establish prayers and regular charity and bow down humbly in worship."(5:56) [28]

In reality, the link between the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, to whom is entrusted the supervision of the Muslims, and the Islamic ummah is like the relationship of a father with his offspring, for he is responsible for administering their affairs and protecting their interest; it is not a relationship of ruler and ruled.

Likewise, the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, did not use the word caliph or successor with respect to 'Ali, peace be upon him, because obedience to a successor becomes incumbent only after the death of the one to whose authority he succeeds, whereas the intention of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, was the obedience to 'Ali, peace be upon him, was obligatory for the Muslims even before he died. He therefore called him the master of the believers, implying his possession of authority both before and after the death of the Most Noble Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him and his family. Based on the hadith of Ghadir Khumm, he was the master of the Muslims, lust like the Prophet, and had "greater claims on them than their own selves."

al-Tirmidhi in his al-Sahih first relates this hadith, describing it as exalted and remarkable, and then further relates the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, to have said: "'Ali is from me and I am from 'Ali; no one other than 'Ali has the right to do anything on my behalf," [29]

al-Hakim in his al-Mustadrak similarly relates the Messenger of God, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, to have said: "Whoever follows me has obeyed God, and whoever disobeys me has disobeyed God. Whoever obeys , 'Ali has obeyed me, and whoever disobeys , 'Ali has disobeyed me."[30]

When therefore the Messenger of God, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, proclaims to the Muslims that, 'Ali, peace be upon him, has the same authority over the Muslims as himself, so that obedience to him is equivalent to obedience to the Messenger of God, he is in reality proclaiming 'Ali, peace be upon him, to the Muslim community as its overall leader and as the successor to his authority, calling on them to render him obedience.

One of the Shi'i scholars writes:

"I say in all sincerity that if the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, had stood before the people on the day of Ghadir and said: 'For whomsoever I am his master, Abu Bakr is his master; O God, love those who love him and be hostile to those who are hostile to him,' I would be absolutely certain that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, had appointed Abu Bakr as his successor. Equally I cannot imagine that the vest mass of Muslims would have had any doubt that Abu Bakr had been appointed to the succession. If the Messenger of God, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, had said that Abu Bakr had greater claims on the believers than they did themselves and that adherence to the Qur'an was a sure protection against misguidance, there would be no room for hesitation.

"I wish to point out that the hesitancy of Muslims in agreeing that the hadith of Ghadir Khumm indicates the appointment of 'Ali, peace be upon him, by the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, as his successor does not rest on obstinacy and fanaticism. It derives rather from the fact that they have grown up in a society where it is believed that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, did not appoint any successor. It is difficult for them to reconcile this belief with the clear meaning indicated by the hadith." [31]

Of course, one cannot reject the possibility that some of the Companions did not deliberately disobey the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, when choosing his successor; they were simply mistaken in their calculations.

They imagined leadership and the rule of the ummah to be simply a worldly affair, so that it was permissible for them to overlook the one whom the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, had selected and choose someone else to administer the public affairs of the ummah.

Such a group among the Companions may have imagined that the selection of 'Ali, peace be upon him, by the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, was simply one of those matters of social concern on which the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, would sometimes consult his Companions. If this is the case, they failed to grasp all the purposes that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his family, had in mind and the consequences he intended for his choice. Likewise they were incapable of reflecting on the disastrous consequences their own choice and decision would ultimately entail.

Notes:

[11] Ibn Kathir, al-Bidayah, Vol. V, pp. 209-13; al-Haythami, Majma' al-zawa'id, Vol. IX, pp. 163-5.

[12] al-Wahidi, asbab al-Nuzul, p. 150; al-Suyuti, al-Durr al-Manthur, Vol. III, p. 298; al-Qunduzi, Yanabi' al-Mawaddah, p. 130; al-Alusi, al-Tafsir, Vol. II, p. 172; al-Shawkani, Fath al-Qadir, Vol. III, p. 57. Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, al-Tafsir al-Kabir, Vol. III, p. 636; Badr al-Din al-Hanafi, 'Umdah al-Qari, Vol. VIII, p. 584; Abduh, Tafsir al-Manar..

[13] Ahmad b. Hanbal, al-Musnad, Vol. IV, p. 281; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidayah, Vol. V, p.212.

[14] Ahmad b. Hanbal, al-Musnad, Vol. V, p. 181.

[15] al-Tirmidhi, Jami' al-Sahih, Vol. V, p. 328.

[16] al-Muttaqial-Hindi, Kanz al-'Ummal, Vol. XV, p. 123.

[17] Ahmad b. Hanbal, al-Musnad, Vol. I, p. 118-19; al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak, Vol. III, p. 109; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidayah, v, pp. 209, 213.

[18] al-Haythami, Majma' al-zawa'id, Vol. IX, pp. 104-5; al-Hasakani, Shawahid al-tanzil, Vol. I, p. 193; Ahmad b. Hanbal, al-Musnad, Vol. I, p. 119. Ibn Kathir, al-Bidayah, Vol. v, p. 212.

[19] The hadith concerning Ghadir Khumm is to be found with various chains of transmission in the Sunni sources. See al-Ghadir, Vol. I, pp. 14-72, where the hadith is reported from 110 Companions of the Prophet, including Abu Bakr, 'Umar b. al-Khattab, Ubayy b. Ka'b, Usamah b. Zayd, Anas b. Malik, Jabir b. 'Abdullah, Zayd b. Arqam, Talhah, al-Zubayr, and Ibn Mas'ud. See too al-Tirmidhi, Jami al-Sahih, Vol. II, p. 297. al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak, Vol. III, p. 109; Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, al-Tafsir al-Kabir, Vol. XII, p. 50; al-Wahidi, asbab al-Nuzul, p. 150; al-Suyuti, al-Durr al-Manthur, Vol. II, p. 298; al-Ya'qubi, al-Tarikh, Vol. II, p. 95; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidayah, Vol. V. al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Tarikh Baghdad, Vol. VII, p.377. al-Tha'labi, al-Tafsir, p. 120; Ibn Hajar, Sawa'iq, Chapter 5.

[20] al-Suyut.i, al-Durr al-Manthur, Vol. II, p. 256; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidayah, Vol. II, p. 14; al-Hamawini, Fara'id al-simtayn, Chapter 12; al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Tarikh Baghdad, Vol. VIII, p. 290; al-Suyuti, al-Itqan, Vol. II, p. 31; al-Khwarazmi, al-Tarikh.

[21] al-Ya'qubi, al-Tarikh, Vol. II, p.36.

[22] Ibn Khallikan, Wafayat al-a'yan, Vol. I, p.60.

[23] al-Mas'udi, al-Tanbih wa al-ishraf, p. 32.

[24] al-Biruni, al-Athar al-Baqiyah, (Persian translation), p. 334.

[25] Cited in al-Ghadir, Vol. I, p. 267.

[26] For example, Qur'an, 57:15 and 22:13.

[27] Ahmad b. Hanbal, al-Musnad, Vol. 1V, p. 281; Ibn Hajar, al-Sawa'iq, p. 26; al-Tabari, al-Tafsir, Vol. III, p. 428; al-Ghazali, Sirr al-'alamin, p. 9. Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, al-Tafsir al-Kabir, Vol. III, p. 636; al-Hamawini, Fara'id al-simtayn, Chapter XIII; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidayah, Vol. V, p. 209; Ibn Sabbagh, Fusul al-Muhimmah, p. 25; al-Muhibb al-Tabari, Riyad al-Nadirah, Vol. II, p. 169.

[28] Sunni and Shi'i commentators alike are agreed that this verse alludes to 'Ali.

[29] al-Tirmidhi, Jami' al-Sahih, Vol. V, p. 300. See also Ibn Majah, al-Sunan, Vol. I, p. 44, and Ahmad b. Hanbal, al-Musnad, Vol. IV, pp. 164-5.

[30] al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak, Vol. III, p. 131.

[31] Amir al-Mu'minin.
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PostPosted: Sat Jun 20, 2009 6:17 pm    Post subject: Re: "GHADIRE-E-KHUMM" Reply with quote

Ahmed Bin Hambal, one of the four Sunni schools of jurisprudence, has mentioned this incident in his well known book "MASNADUL KABEER" He quotes Barra bin Azib one of the `As-haab` of the Prophet saying, "We were in the company of the Prophet when he halted at the `GHADEER KHUM` and led the congregational prayer. After finishing the prayer the Prophet took the hand of ALI and raised it up saying, " Am I not dearer to the Momins than their own-souls?" They said "Yes" Again he said, "Whomever's master (mawla) I am, this Ali is also his master (Man kuntu mawlahu fa hadha Aliyun mawlahu). O God, love those who love Ali and hate those who hate Ali." After hearing this, Omar-Bin-Khattab went up to Ali and said, "Congraulations to you, O`the son of Abu Talib, you have become the Master of every male and female `Momin`."
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PostPosted: Thu Jul 09, 2009 9:18 am    Post subject: Re: "GHADIRE-E-KHUMM" Reply with quote

GHADIR HADITH AND IT'S NATURE

All the Shia and Sunni ulema acknowledge that, in the 10th of the Hijra year, the Prophet of Allah, returning from his last pilgrimage, gathered together all his companions at Ghadir-e-Khum on the 18th of Dhi'l-Hijja. Some of those who had gone ahead were called back by order of the Holy Prophet and those who had lagged behind were awaited.

Most sources give the figure of 70,000 people there, for instance Tha'labi in his Tafsir, Sibt Ibn Jauzi in his Tadhkirat'u- Khasa'isi'l-Umma fi Ma'rifati'l-A'imma and others have written that there were 120,000 people gathered there.

The Holy Prophet ordered a pulpit to be prepared. He mounted the pulpit and delivered a long sermon, a greater part of which contained the virtues and merits of the Commander of the Faithful. He recited most of the verses, which had been revealed in praise of Ali and reminded the people of the holy rank of the vicegerency of the Commander of the Faithful.

Then the Holy Prophet said, "O you people! Have I not the greater claim than you have on your lives?" The reference is to the holy verse "The Prophet has a greater claim on the faithful than they have on themselves." (33:6) The crowd with one voice shouted "Certainly, O messenger of Allah!" Then the Holy Prophet declared: "Of whomsoever I am the maula, (master) this Ali is his maula." After this he raised his hand and prayed to Allah. "O Allah, be you a friend to him who is a friend to him (that is, Ali) and be an enemy to him who is an enemy to him (Ali). Help him who helps him and forsake him who forsakes him.

Then a tent was pitched by order of the Holy Prophet who ordered the Commander of the Faithful, Ali to sit in the tent. The whole umma was commanded to offer bai'at (allegiance) to Ali. The Holy Prophet said that he gave this instruction in compliance with the command of Allah. The first one to offer allegiance on that day was Umar. Then Abu Bakr, Uthman, Talha, and Zubair followed suit, and all these people continued offering allegiance for three days (i.e., while the Holy Prophet remained there).


1. Imam Fakhru'd-Din Razi - Tafsir-e-Kabir Mafatihu'l-Ghaib.
2. Imam Ahmad Tha'labi - Tafsir-e-Kashfu'l-Bayan.
3. Jalalu'd-Din Suyuti - Tafsir-e-Durru'l-Manthur.
4. Abu'l-Hasan Ali Bin Ahmad Wahidi Nishapuri - Asbabu'n- Nuzul.
5. Muhammad Bin Jarir Tabari - Tafsiru'l-Kabir.
6. Hafiz Abu Nu'aim Ispahani - Ma Nazal Mina'l-Qur'an fi Ali and Hilyatu'l-Auliya.
7. Muhammad Bin Isma'il Bukhari - Ta'rikh, Vol.1, p.375.
8. Muslim Bin Hajjaj Nishapuri - Sahih, Vol.2, p.325.
9. Abu Dawud Sijistani - Sunan.
11. Hafiz Ibnu'l-Iqda - Kitabu'l-Wilaya.
12. Ibn Kathir Shafi'i Damishqi - Ta'rikh.
13. Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal - Vol.4, pp.281&371.
14. Abu Hamid Muhammad Bin Muhammad Al-Ghazali - Sirru'l-Alamin.
15. Ibn Abdu'l-Birr - Isti'ab.
16. Muhammad Bin Talha Shafi'i - Matalibu's-Su'ul, p.16.
17. Ibn Maghazili Faqih Shafi'i - Manaqib.
18. Nuru'-d-Din Bin Sabbagh Maliki - Fusulu'l-Muhimma.
19. Husain Bin Mas'ud Baghawi - Masabihu's-Sunna.
20. Abu'l-Mu'ayyid Muwafiq Bin Ahmad Khatib Khawarizmi - Manaqib.
21. Majdu'd-Din Bin Athir Muhammad Bin Muhammad Shaibani -am'u'l-Usul.
22. Hafiz Abu Abdu'r-Rahman Ahmad Bin Ali Nisa'i - Khasa'isu'l-Alawi and Sunan.
23. Sulayman Balkhi Hanafi - Yanabiu'l-Mawadda, Ch. IV.
24. Shahabu'd-din Ahmad Bin Hajar Makki - Sawa'iq Muhriqa and Kitabu'l-Manhu'l-Malakiyya, particularly Sawa'iq, Part 1, p.25. In spite of his extreme fanaticism, he says: "This is a true hadith; its veracity cannot be doubted. Verily it has been narrated by Tirmidhi, Nisa'i and Ahmad, and if studied, its sources are sound enough."
25. Muhammad Bin Yazid Hafiz Ibn Maja Qazwini - Sunan.
26. Hafiz Abu Abdullah Muhammad Bin Abdullah Hakim Nishapuri-Mustadrak.
27. Hafiz Sulayman Ibn Ahmad Tabrani - Ausat.
28. Ibn Athir Jazari - Usudu'l-Ghaiba.
29. Yusuf Sibt Ibn Jauzi - Tadhkiratu'l-Khasa'isu'l-Umma, p. 17.
30. Abu Umar Ahmad Bin Abd Rabbih - Iqdu'l-Farid.
31. Allama Samhudi - Jawahiru'l-Iqdain.
32. Ibn Taimiyya Ahmad Bin Abdu'l-Halim - Minhaju's-Sunna.
33. Ibn Hajar Asqalani - Fathu'l-Bari and Tahdhibu't-Tahdhib.
34. Abdu'l-Qasim Muhammad Bin Umar Jarullah Zamakhshari - Rabiu'l-Abrar.
35. Abu Sa'id Sijistani - Kitabu'd-Darayab Fi hadithi'l-Wilaya.
36. Ubaidullah Bin Abdullah Haskani - Du'atu'l-Huda Ila Ada Haqqi'l-Muwala.
37. Razin Bin Mu'awiya Al-Abdari - Jam Bainu's-Sahihi's-Sitta.
38. Imam Fakhru'd-din Razi says in Kitabu'l-Arba'in that the whole Community unanimously confirms this hadith.
39. Muqibili - hadithu'l-Mutawatira.
40. Suyuti - Ta'rikhu'l-Khulafa.
41. Mir Seyyed Ali Hamadani - Mawaddatu'l-Qurba.
42. Abul Fath Nazari - Khasa'es'u'l-Alavi
43. Khwaja Parsa Bukhari - Faslu'l-Khitab
44. Jamaluddin Shirazi - Kitabu'l-Araba'in
45. Abdul Ra'ufu'l-Manavi - Faizu'l-Qadir fi Sharh-i-Jame'u's-Saghir
46. Muhammad bin Yusuf Ganji Shafi'i - Kifayatu't-Talib, Part. 1
47. Yahya Bin Sharaf-Nauvi - Tehzibu'l-Asma wa'l-Lughat
48. Ibrahim bin Muhammad Hamwaini - Fara'adu's-Simtoun
49. Qazi Fazlullah bin Ruzhahan - Ibtalu'l-Batil
50. Shamsuddin Muhammad bin Ahmad Sharbini - Siraju'l-Munir
51. Abul Fath Shahristani Shafi'i - Milal wa'n-Nihal
52. Hafiz Abu Bakr Khatib Baghdadi - Tarikh
53. Hafiz Ibn Asakir abul Qasim Damishqi - Tarikh-i-Kabir
54. Ibn Abi'l-Hadid Mutazali - Sharhe Nahju'l-Balagha
55. Ala'uddin Samnani -Urwatu'l-Wuthqah
56. Ibn Khaldun - Muqaddima
57. Molvi Ali Muttaqi Hindi - Kanzu'l-Ummal
58. Shamsuddin Abul Khair Damishqi - Asnu Matalib
59. Syed Sharif Hanafi Jurjani - Sharh-i-Mawaqit
60. Nizamuddin Nishapuri - Tafsir-i-Ghara'ibu'l-Qur'an

Reference
http://www.scribd.com/doc/3502210/Ghadir-Shia
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From_Alamut



Joined: 22 Jan 2008
Posts: 666

PostPosted: Tue Jul 14, 2009 4:56 pm    Post subject: Re: "GHADIRE-E-KHUMM" Reply with quote

The Speech

Upon ascending the pulpit, the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his progeny) delivered a lengthy sermon in which he recited nearly one hundred verses from the Qur’an, and warned people of their deeds and future. Then he delivered a long speech, in which he said: “It seems the time approached when I shall be called away (by Allah) and I shall answer that call. I am leaving for you two precious things and if you adhere both of them, you will never go astray after me. They are the Book of Allah and my progeny, that is my Ahlul-Bayt. The two shall never separate from each other until they come to me by the Pool (of Paradise).”



The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his progeny) then continued: “Do I not have more right over the believers than what they have over themselves?” The people cried out: “Yes, O' Messenger of God.” Then Prophet then held up the hand of ‘Ali and said: “For whoever I am his leader (Mawla), ‘Ali is his leader (Mawla). “O Allah! Love those who love ‘Ali, and be the enemy of the enemy of ‘Ali; help him who helps ‘Ali, and forsake him who forsakes ‘A1i.” This incident has been recorded by so many Muhaditheen (recorders of ahadeeth) that is is considered mutawatir (undeniably authentic). The list of sources includes Sahih Tirmidhi, Sunan ibn Majah, Khasa’is an-Nisa’i, Mustadrak al-Hakim, Musnad ibn Hanbal, Fadha’il as-Sahaba of ibn Hanbal, Tasfeer al Kabir by Fakhrud Deen ar-Razi, al-Bidayah wa Nihaya by Ibn Kathir, and many others. All of these scholars are among the most renowned and well-respected scholars in Islamic history.



Revelation of Verse 5:3 Immediately after the Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny) finished his speech, the following verse of Holy Qur’an was revealed: “This day have those who disbelieve despaired of your religion, so fear them not, and fear Me. This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My bounty upon you and chosen for you Islam as a religion.” (5:3) Some of the Ahle-Sunnah scholars who which mention the revelation of this verse at Ghadir Khum include as-Suyuti, ibn Asakir, ibn Katheer, Abu Nu’aym, and many others. Laudation from the Muslims After his speech, the Messenger of Allah asked every body to give the oath of allegiance to ‘Ali (as) and congratulate him.



Among the first Muslims to congratulate ‘Ali were ‘Umar and Abu Bakr, who said: “Well done, O son of Abu Talib! Today you have become the leader (Mawla) of all believing men and women.” [Found in Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Tafsir al-Kabir by Fakhrudeen al-Razi, Kitabul Wilayah by at-Tabari, and many others]



The Meaning of Mawla

The schools of thought differ on the interpretation of the word “Mawla.” In Arabic, the world “Mawla” has many meanings. It can mean master, friend, slave, or even client. If a word has more than one meaning, the best way to ascertain its true connotation is to look at the association (qarinah) and the context. There are scores of “associations” in this hadith which clearly show that the only meaning fitting the occasion can be “master”. Some of them are as follows.



First: The question which the Holy Prophet asked just before this declaration: “Do I not have more authority (awla) upon you than you have yourselves?” When they said: “Yes, surely,” then the Prophet proceeded to declare that: “Whoever whose mawla I am. ‘Ali is his mawla.” Without doubt, the word “mawla” in this declaration has the same meaning as “awla” (having more authority upon you). At least 64 Sunni traditionalists have quoted that preceding question; among them are Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ibn Majah, an-Nasa’i and at-Tirmidhi.



Second: The following prayer which the Holy Prophet uttered just after this declaration: “O Allah! Love him who loves ‘Ali, and be the enemy of the enemy of ‘Ali; help him who helps ‘Ali, and forsake him who forsakes ‘A1i.” This prayer shows that ‘A1i, on that day, was entrusted with a responsibility which, by its very nature, would make some people his enemy; and in carrying out that responsibility he would need helpers and supporters. Are helpers ever needed to carry on a friendship?



Third: The declaration of the Holy Prophet that: “It seems imminent that I will be called away (by Allah) and I will answer that call.” This clearly shows that he was making arrangements for the leadership of the Muslims after his death.



Fourth: The congratulations of the Companions and their expressions of joy do not leave room for doubt concerning the meaning of this declaration.



Fifth: According to the verse revealed before the announcement (5:67), Allah had commanded something of great importance and concern to the Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny), which if not delivered would have jeapardized the entire message of Islam. This matter was of such significance that the Prophet feared opposition and interference, and had been awaiting suitable circumstances to proclaim it, until finally there came a definite and urgent order from Allah to execute this command without delay and not to fear anyone.



Sixth: The verse revealed immediately after the proclamation (5:3) shows that the non-believers had hopes that a day would come when Islam would die out. But Allah, through the actualization of this particular event, made them lose forever the hope that Islam would be destroyed. The same verse shows that this very event was the cause of the perfection of Islam and the completion of Allah’s bounty upon humankind. Of necessity, therefore, Ghadeer Khumm could not have been a minor occasion, such as the promulgation of a simple injunction of religion, or the announcement that ‘Ali was just a “friend” of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him and his progeny).



An Appeal to Common Sense:

Allah, the All-Knowing, describes the sublime character of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him and his progeny) as follows: Certainly a Messenger has come to you from among yourselves; grievous to him is your falling into distress, excessively solicitous respecting you; to the believers (he is) compassionate... [9:128] The Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny) was an extremely kind-hearted and compassionate. He always took every effort to ensure the well-being and comfort of his followers, and was never known to impose any extra burden or hardship upon others. He was even known to shorten his prayers upon hearing the voice of a baby crying. It is impossible to infer that the Prophet, who was sent as “a mercy unto the worlds” had ordered his followers to sit in the burning heat of the Arabian desert, without any shade, for several hours, only to announce to them that ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib was his “friend.” Such a claim is yet more absurd when one considers the fact that ‘Ali already had an exalted status in comparison with the other Muslims.

- He was the first male to embrace Islam [Sahih Tirmidhi, v5; Musnad Ibn Hanbal v4; Mustadrak al- Hakim, v3]

- He had been given the title “Brother” of the Prophet [Sahih Tirmidhi v5; Sirah Ibn Hisham]

- He held the same position to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him and his progeny) as Haroon had held

to Musa. [Sahih Bukhari, 5.56, 5.700]



In light of all this, it does not seem logical for the Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny) to keep more than a hundred thousand people in such unbearable heat, just to tell them that ‘Ali was his “friend.”



Conclusion:

Although the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his progeny) had made several statements throughout his Prophethood that indicated the superiority of ‘Ali to the other Muslims (see the ahadeeth of “Da’wa Dhu’l Ashirah,” Manzila, Safinah, Wilayat, and many others) Ghadeer Khumm represented the formal appointment and proclamation of ‘Ali as “leader of the Muslims.” The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him and his progeny) went through great lengths to ensure that all the Muslims knew he had appointed ‘Ali as his successor, and ‘Ali was even congratulated afterwards by some prominent Companions for his newly announced rank. Once the declaration was made, Islam had became perfect and complete. With all this evidence from undisputed Sunni texts, it is impossible to conclude that the Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny) did not appoint a successor.

Reference
http://utm.thaqalayn.org/files/ghadeer.pdf
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YaAliYaMowla



Joined: 24 Aug 2008
Posts: 57

PostPosted: Wed Jul 15, 2009 6:40 am    Post subject: Re: "GHADIRE-E-KHUMM" Reply with quote

From_Alamut wrote:
GHADIR HADITH AND IT'S NATURE

All the Shia and Sunni ulema acknowledge that, in the 10th of the Hijra year, the Prophet of Allah, returning from his last pilgrimage, gathered together all his companions at Ghadir-e-Khum on the 18th of Dhi'l-Hijja. Some of those who had gone ahead were called back by order of the Holy Prophet and those who had lagged behind were awaited.

Most sources give the figure of 70,000 people there, for instance Tha'labi in his Tafsir, Sibt Ibn Jauzi in his Tadhkirat'u- Khasa'isi'l-Umma fi Ma'rifati'l-A'imma and others have written that there were 120,000 people gathered there.

The Holy Prophet ordered a pulpit to be prepared. He mounted the pulpit and delivered a long sermon, a greater part of which contained the virtues and merits of the Commander of the Faithful. He recited most of the verses, which had been revealed in praise of Ali and reminded the people of the holy rank of the vicegerency of the Commander of the Faithful.

Then the Holy Prophet said, "O you people! Have I not the greater claim than you have on your lives?" The reference is to the holy verse "The Prophet has a greater claim on the faithful than they have on themselves." (33:6) The crowd with one voice shouted "Certainly, O messenger of Allah!" Then the Holy Prophet declared: "Of whomsoever I am the maula, (master) this Ali is his maula." After this he raised his hand and prayed to Allah. "O Allah, be you a friend to him who is a friend to him (that is, Ali) and be an enemy to him who is an enemy to him (Ali). Help him who helps him and forsake him who forsakes him.

Then a tent was pitched by order of the Holy Prophet who ordered the Commander of the Faithful, Ali to sit in the tent. The whole umma was commanded to offer bai'at (allegiance) to Ali. The Holy Prophet said that he gave this instruction in compliance with the command of Allah. The first one to offer allegiance on that day was Umar. Then Abu Bakr, Uthman, Talha, and Zubair followed suit, and all these people continued offering allegiance for three days (i.e., while the Holy Prophet remained there).


1. Imam Fakhru'd-Din Razi - Tafsir-e-Kabir Mafatihu'l-Ghaib.
2. Imam Ahmad Tha'labi - Tafsir-e-Kashfu'l-Bayan.
3. Jalalu'd-Din Suyuti - Tafsir-e-Durru'l-Manthur.
4. Abu'l-Hasan Ali Bin Ahmad Wahidi Nishapuri - Asbabu'n- Nuzul.
5. Muhammad Bin Jarir Tabari - Tafsiru'l-Kabir.
6. Hafiz Abu Nu'aim Ispahani - Ma Nazal Mina'l-Qur'an fi Ali and Hilyatu'l-Auliya.
7. Muhammad Bin Isma'il Bukhari - Ta'rikh, Vol.1, p.375.
8. Muslim Bin Hajjaj Nishapuri - Sahih, Vol.2, p.325.
9. Abu Dawud Sijistani - Sunan.
11. Hafiz Ibnu'l-Iqda - Kitabu'l-Wilaya.
12. Ibn Kathir Shafi'i Damishqi - Ta'rikh.
13. Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal - Vol.4, pp.281&371.
14. Abu Hamid Muhammad Bin Muhammad Al-Ghazali - Sirru'l-Alamin.
15. Ibn Abdu'l-Birr - Isti'ab.
16. Muhammad Bin Talha Shafi'i - Matalibu's-Su'ul, p.16.
17. Ibn Maghazili Faqih Shafi'i - Manaqib.
18. Nuru'-d-Din Bin Sabbagh Maliki - Fusulu'l-Muhimma.
19. Husain Bin Mas'ud Baghawi - Masabihu's-Sunna.
20. Abu'l-Mu'ayyid Muwafiq Bin Ahmad Khatib Khawarizmi - Manaqib.
21. Majdu'd-Din Bin Athir Muhammad Bin Muhammad Shaibani -am'u'l-Usul.
22. Hafiz Abu Abdu'r-Rahman Ahmad Bin Ali Nisa'i - Khasa'isu'l-Alawi and Sunan.
23. Sulayman Balkhi Hanafi - Yanabiu'l-Mawadda, Ch. IV.
24. Shahabu'd-din Ahmad Bin Hajar Makki - Sawa'iq Muhriqa and Kitabu'l-Manhu'l-Malakiyya, particularly Sawa'iq, Part 1, p.25. In spite of his extreme fanaticism, he says: "This is a true hadith; its veracity cannot be doubted. Verily it has been narrated by Tirmidhi, Nisa'i and Ahmad, and if studied, its sources are sound enough."
25. Muhammad Bin Yazid Hafiz Ibn Maja Qazwini - Sunan.
26. Hafiz Abu Abdullah Muhammad Bin Abdullah Hakim Nishapuri-Mustadrak.
27. Hafiz Sulayman Ibn Ahmad Tabrani - Ausat.
28. Ibn Athir Jazari - Usudu'l-Ghaiba.
29. Yusuf Sibt Ibn Jauzi - Tadhkiratu'l-Khasa'isu'l-Umma, p. 17.
30. Abu Umar Ahmad Bin Abd Rabbih - Iqdu'l-Farid.
31. Allama Samhudi - Jawahiru'l-Iqdain.
32. Ibn Taimiyya Ahmad Bin Abdu'l-Halim - Minhaju's-Sunna.
33. Ibn Hajar Asqalani - Fathu'l-Bari and Tahdhibu't-Tahdhib.
34. Abdu'l-Qasim Muhammad Bin Umar Jarullah Zamakhshari - Rabiu'l-Abrar.
35. Abu Sa'id Sijistani - Kitabu'd-Darayab Fi hadithi'l-Wilaya.
36. Ubaidullah Bin Abdullah Haskani - Du'atu'l-Huda Ila Ada Haqqi'l-Muwala.
37. Razin Bin Mu'awiya Al-Abdari - Jam Bainu's-Sahihi's-Sitta.
38. Imam Fakhru'd-din Razi says in Kitabu'l-Arba'in that the whole Community unanimously confirms this hadith.
39. Muqibili - hadithu'l-Mutawatira.
40. Suyuti - Ta'rikhu'l-Khulafa.
41. Mir Seyyed Ali Hamadani - Mawaddatu'l-Qurba.
42. Abul Fath Nazari - Khasa'es'u'l-Alavi
43. Khwaja Parsa Bukhari - Faslu'l-Khitab
44. Jamaluddin Shirazi - Kitabu'l-Araba'in
45. Abdul Ra'ufu'l-Manavi - Faizu'l-Qadir fi Sharh-i-Jame'u's-Saghir
46. Muhammad bin Yusuf Ganji Shafi'i - Kifayatu't-Talib, Part. 1
47. Yahya Bin Sharaf-Nauvi - Tehzibu'l-Asma wa'l-Lughat
48. Ibrahim bin Muhammad Hamwaini - Fara'adu's-Simtoun
49. Qazi Fazlullah bin Ruzhahan - Ibtalu'l-Batil
50. Shamsuddin Muhammad bin Ahmad Sharbini - Siraju'l-Munir
51. Abul Fath Shahristani Shafi'i - Milal wa'n-Nihal
52. Hafiz Abu Bakr Khatib Baghdadi - Tarikh
53. Hafiz Ibn Asakir abul Qasim Damishqi - Tarikh-i-Kabir
54. Ibn Abi'l-Hadid Mutazali - Sharhe Nahju'l-Balagha
55. Ala'uddin Samnani -Urwatu'l-Wuthqah
56. Ibn Khaldun - Muqaddima
57. Molvi Ali Muttaqi Hindi - Kanzu'l-Ummal
58. Shamsuddin Abul Khair Damishqi - Asnu Matalib
59. Syed Sharif Hanafi Jurjani - Sharh-i-Mawaqit
60. Nizamuddin Nishapuri - Tafsir-i-Ghara'ibu'l-Qur'an

Reference
http://www.scribd.com/doc/3502210/Ghadir-Shia


The offering of allegiance to Mowlana Ali lasted for three days. I think this is another very solid point for why it just doesnt make sense for Mowlana Ali to have been designated as a friend through the term Mowla. If Mowla only meant friend then would the Prophet really have had everyone offer allegiance to Mowlana Ali for three straight days in the tent?
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From_Alamut



Joined: 22 Jan 2008
Posts: 666

PostPosted: Thu Jul 16, 2009 8:42 am    Post subject: Re: "GHADIRE-E-KHUMM" Reply with quote

Imam Hanbal quotes in his Musnad (as do Ibn Shafi’i in his Manaqib, Mir Seyyed Ali Hamadani in Mawaddatu'l-Qurba, Dailami in Firdaus and others with minor variations) in quoting the "Hadith of Creation":

Prophet said: "I and Ali were created of the same Divine Light 14,000 years before Adam was created. From the loins of the Prophet Adam and through his holy progeny, the Light was inherited by Abdu'l-Muttalib, and from him it was divided and inherited by Abdullah, (father of the Prophet) and Abu Talib, (father of Ali). I was granted prophethood, and Ali was granted the caliphate."
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ShamsB



Joined: 04 Aug 2004
Posts: 1118

PostPosted: Thu Jul 16, 2009 10:25 am    Post subject: Re: "GHADIRE-E-KHUMM" Reply with quote

From_Alamut wrote:
Imam Hanbal quotes in his Musnad (as do Ibn Shafi’i in his Manaqib, Mir Seyyed Ali Hamadani in Mawaddatu'l-Qurba, Dailami in Firdaus and others with minor variations) in quoting the "Hadith of Creation":

Prophet said: "I and Ali were created of the same Divine Light 14,000 years before Adam was created. From the loins of the Prophet Adam and through his holy progeny, the Light was inherited by Abdu'l-Muttalib, and from him it was divided and inherited by Abdullah, (father of the Prophet) and Abu Talib, (father of Ali). I was granted prophethood, and Ali was granted the caliphate."


I.E. Imamat Pre Ali was with Abu Talib - and Piratan was with Abdullah.

Shams
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From_Alamut



Joined: 22 Jan 2008
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PostPosted: Fri Dec 18, 2009 7:14 pm    Post subject: Re: "GHADIRE-E-KHUMM" Reply with quote

There is another movie called Al_Nebras which is based on the HERO OF ISLAM Kudavan Mowla ALI (peace be upon him and his progeny) on Youtube..."There is no hero except Ali, there is no sword except (his sword) Zulfiqar"

"Al-Nebras is a scintillating film that captures the distinguished life of Imam Ali (as). The film focuses on the eminent role of Imam Ali (a) during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet (s). It presents various dimensions of his matchless personality under the shadow of the best of creation, the Holy Prophet (asa). The film artistically recreates striking scenes from the famous earliest battles of Islam to the plains of Ghadire-e-Khumm, where the religion of Islam was perfected with the appointment of Imam Ali (a) as the successor to the Holy Prophet (s). Al-Nebras covers some of the innumerable qualities the personality of Imam Ali (a) and comprehensively underlines his central position in the Islamic Message."

The movie dialog is in Arabic and at the same time it has English translation.....

Part 1
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=siv6LZOgbK0

Part 2
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n9m8VW9ukvE&feature=related

Part 3
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RgEC4G-y110&NR=1

Part 4
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a6V5LAZVAqk&feature=related

Part 5
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m8wwOV9b2sQ&feature=related

Part 6
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v5HxzHprNvg&feature=related

Part 7
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cEsVnFhpOyk&feature=related

Part 8 (Last Part)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ork-wXa5S_I&feature=related
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znanwalla



Joined: 02 Nov 2009
Posts: 401

PostPosted: Sat Dec 19, 2009 2:24 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Alamot - excellent clips ! Thanks you for sharing !

" LA FATA ILLA ALY...LA SAIFA ILLA ZULFIKAR.." - we need to understand the philosophy behind this expression as there is no hero except Aly and the historians are saying this !....first and foremost Hazrat Ali had "Alquabs" - not only was he "Murtaza" but also "Amir ul Momineen" and "Imam al Muttaqueen"........

Not only was he from an illustrious and noble clan but the greatest warrior and marshall of his time...a moralist and a great teacher....and Ali's sword was the help that Islam received during its early days of struggle and in its wars of self-defence.

For Islam he was the first line of defence.One only needs to read the narrations of the battles he fought for Islam and especially Bader; Ohad; and Khyber.


Ali was the beau ideal of chivalry and personification of gallantry, bravery and generosity and so the greeting "YA ALI MADAD" captures these attributes and serves as a reminder of the attributes of the bold champion of Islam and his courage....this greeting serves also as a reminder to the Momineen to fight only for God, Truth and Justice and not act like mercenaries (that we see nowadays everywhere) who plunder and kill for wealth and power and political inclinations and then use the name of Religion as a justification like scoundrels....

Hazrat Ali's direction is clear - not to be injurious and harmful to mankind.....in today's turbulent world, it is necessary to not only send the "greetings of peace and of brotherhood but also remind each other of the high morals and ethics of the Commander to each other"

His battles carry with him chronicles of his bravery, courage and chivalry and even the enemies sang songs of Hazrat Ali's valour and gallantry....so what is wrong if his followers do this too?

In the battle of Ohad the enemies had seriously wounded the Prophet (peace be on him)- I will not go into details - Ali fought relentlessly against all odds to not only save the Prophet's life but gain victory in the end and in this battle Ali killed many famous warriors of arabia who were enemies of the Prophet.

It is reported in the history books that even Angel Gabriel was loud in the praise of Ali and said: "there is no braver youth than Ali and no better sword than his "Zulfikar" and you can read about this battle more in details either in (a) Waquadi's history of Prophets (b)Tabaree's history.

And then read the history of the battle of the clans(Ahzab) or battle of the moat or ditch.....the giant Omer was killed by Ali in the end as all others had failed or were afraid....Omer's sister even had paid tribute to this great warrior of Islam....Ali had demorlized the enemies that they went back humiliated ....and you can read the details in (a) Shah Waiullah Dehlavi's izabuth ul khifa (b) kamil ibne asi'r - history Vol 11 (c) Seyoothee's Durray Munshoor or (d) Tabaree's history.

It is clear from all these narrations which we have read that even the prophet sought Hazrat Ali's help during the battles he fought for Islam...so why cannot a follower of Ali do so?....and for more details on the battle of Khyber and how the brave Ali took the enemies by storm, read (a) Moarej un Naboovath - vol 1v - page 216 (b)Almanquibe
of Akthab e kharzami (c) Ibne Hasham's seerut page 187...

There is a very famous hadith of the Prophet (peace be on him) also you will find when you read "Moarej un Naboovath" (page 216) and this hadith was what the prophet had said soon after the battle of Khyber in regards to Hazrat Ali..

"..The victory Ali brought enabled the Muslims to come for Hajj and Umra.." and finally take control of the city of Mecca from the infidels and the hypocrites.

Bismilah-ir Raheman-ir Raheem
All Praise belong To Allah, Lord Of All The World's
O' Ali, angle of blessing, what a sign of God you are!
If you wish to know God, see him in Ali's face


Click Picture to watch video

watch video

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AzYEqnGLjUs





__________________________________________________
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From_Alamut



Joined: 22 Jan 2008
Posts: 666

PostPosted: Sun Dec 20, 2009 10:25 am    Post subject: Re: "GHADIRE-E-KHUMM" Reply with quote

In Praise of Ali

The heartspring of Ali s lover reflects and is full

with the image of him - so is my heart his spring

and his knowledge my shield. O lovers, pluck his blossoms

but save the thorns for his enemies.

No one of the Community is worthy of greatness

but his lover, for the Shiite rests immune

from the wiles of Satan in his citadel.

He is the Prophet s kinsman, but no one

belongs to Ali s tribe but the lover of Truth.

A thousand years of praise will not exhaust

a thousandth of his qualities; I take pride

in his Four Virtues, his manliness, knowledge

piety and munificence, and my back is bent

with gratitude, the burden of Ali.

I imitate his way of dress, robed in faith and gnosis.

Nasibi, be silent - you have not learned

of his warp and weft, or you would

think more of him. Act not the snake with me

lest you think you can bear the sting

of the serpent of Ali. Why do you rank

every lowly weed with him?

He was a lion, the battlefield his veldt,

the unbelievers his prey, his sword,

his Zulfiqar like a dragon

in is claws, slayer of three armies,

his right hand, armour-piercer that

cast to the ground the severed heads

of great commanders. Gabriel called his spear

at the battle of Hunayn, and his heart

was steady as a mountain in the sin

of war. Lions shrink away like foxes

at the sight of his blade.



If you fear the devil will plunder you

hide yourself in his cavern

where no one enters but by the command

of his deputy, and which is made not of stone

but of knowledge (for how could the pride

of Ali descend to stone?), and where are stored

his house, his estate, his chattels.

On the trees and meadows of Ali the rain

falls as hermeneautic exegesis, for he

chose no silver and gold, but knowledge and faith.

How but by his sword-wielding hand

could the Divine Law find protection?

How should the unbelievers of Mecca

not feel him as an inward affliction?

Free from taint, his tongue, hands and loins -

where was the best woman of the world

but by his side? Hasan and Husayn, those

mirrors of the Prophet, were his mirrors.

Satan s hands and feet were amputated

in the uproar he caused, and no one

will be safe from fire but in his refuge.

His sword ruined the good name

of countless warriors in the battles

of Badr, Uhud and Khaybar, which were his work.

Send him my challenge, the boastful knight,

for I am the chevalier of Ali.

Even his enemies I shall convert

if they lend me their ears, and in spite

of all they do, I shall bind them fast

with the bridle of Ali; but if they

turn their heads away from this knowledge

sweet and boundless, they will come

on Resurrection Day, disgraced,

heads dragged in the dust before

ALI.



Reference
Forty Poems from the `Diwan' of Nasir Khusraw. Transl. by P. L. Wilson and Gholam R. Aavani. Tehran: Imperial Iranian Academy of Philosophy, 1977
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znanwalla



Joined: 02 Nov 2009
Posts: 401

PostPosted: Sun Dec 20, 2009 1:43 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Thanks Alamot....enjoy this clip

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7f_sowP3-5A

This is what Maherally is asking on youtube where he has blocked us from replying...."...Give us the Name of Prophet's SON that was married and he had a son... And give us the name of that History Book from you have copied the name of that SON...."

Maybe he should explain to everyone first Sura al kawthar

AL-KAUTHER (ABUNDANCE, PLENTY)
Total Verses: 3
Revealed At: MAKKA

108.001
YUSUFALI: To thee have We granted the Fount (of Abundance).
PICKTHAL: Lo! We have given thee Abundance;
SHAKIR: Surely We have given you Kausar,

108.002

PICKTHAL: So pray unto thy Lord, and sacrifice.
SHAKIR: Therefore pray to your Lord and make a sacrifice.

108.003

PICKTHAL: Lo! it is thy insulter (and not thou) who is without posterity.
SHAKIR: Surely your enemy is the one who shall be without posterity,

So who is without posterity now? those who have no Ali by their side and history tells us that the enemies of the Prophet SAW tried in many ways to thwart his divine mission - they accused him of being mad, to being possessed...they even tried to kill him in his bed. ...but the evil schemes of these Idolators came to naught and so their last hope was that with the death of the Prophet, the religion he brought would also come to an end as he had no male offspring to succeed him...."OR SAY THEY: a Poet, for whom we await the accident of time?.." Sura Tur....

This thought dominated these hypocrites but with the appointment of Ali (as) their hopes were dashed and with this designation of Ali(as) the act of continuity was secured and Allah sent this ayah...

" This day are those who disbelieve in DESPAIR of ever harming your religion, so fear them not, fear ME. This day I have PERFECTED your RELIGION for you and COMPLETED MY Favours unto you and have chosen for you ISLAM as Religion..."

Maherally is also like the Munafiqun waiting for such "accidents" - but for the last 20 plus years he has only glorified Ismailism as more and more people have begun to take keen interest in this sect.

He is endlessly waiting for Namaz to replace Du'a...he is day dreaming and will have to eat his words soon....at best there may be minor revisions to the Du'a to bring this in uniformity also in order that everyone's texts across the board, is the same ....for example people in Africa must recite the same Du'a text in India and vice versa....

Du'a and Namaz have co-existed for centuries in the ismaili Tariqa....he comes from a "Khoja" group that primarily recites the Du'a....Ismailis is extremely rich in it's diversity and we are not prohibited from reciting namaz - nor have been prohibited from going to a masjid either, as far as I believe....I hope someone will kindly share this information with the ignoramuses of our 21st century.......Happy Holidays !
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PostPosted: Mon Dec 21, 2009 1:27 pm    Post subject: Re: "GHADIRE-E-KHUMM" Reply with quote

In Praise of Ali (2)

My back - by the grace of God and in devotion of Him -

is strong enough perhaps that I might attain

to the Messenger and his intercession; I ask for no other

to plead for me with God but His Prophet, and to plead

for me with the Prophet none but his blessed Family,

with whom I shall go to him; no fear of taint

or contagion from hypocrites. The Religion of Allah

is the Prophets kingdom and today all creatures

are his subjects, his Community. Your slave

does not owe you even half the obedience

that the Prophet s Community owes him.

He has ordered you not to kill your slave for disobedience

nor will he slay you for your rebellion;

do not sever yourself from his all-encompassing protection,

for he is the Guide of all creation, his message

has reached from one end of the world to the other.

After him, his Family are the Guides - reverence him

and turn not from his Family. If you know him not

then you must know his children - how else

in your bewilderment can you hope for his mercy?

Have you not heard to whom the Prophet entrusted

his dominion on the day of his Sermon by the ditch?

the one to whom allusion is made in the Book?

the one before whose courage the boldness of the unbelievers

faded like a lantern his up to the sun?

Who gave his ring to a beggar? to whom

all the descendants of the Prophet trace their family tree?

who slept in the Prophet s bed, while the Messenger

fled from his enemies in the Migration? to whom

the Prophet gave the banner in the battle of Badr

when all others quailed? the lion, the warrior

whom God has made all heroes to love?

On the field of battle our Prophet had no miracle

more potent than that man s might. It is he

who will distribute paradise and hell to the faithful

and unfaithful. He is the Gate of the City of Knowledge

which is the Prophet; no one but him

is worthy of that trust. If you seek the City

go to its gate, that felicity s light may brighten your heart.

Yes, he was the Prophet s miracle in battle

and Zulfiqar, his two-tongued sword, was his own miracle.

The Prophet was God s treasure, but he -

his mind and heart - were the Prophet s treasure.

The enemies of God s lion are beset with the disease of ill omen

and cannot be accused of anything but stupidity,

or the horror of an ass when it sees a lion.

Turn away, flee those infected with such prestige,

but if they show you honour, do not (for the sake

of dignity of Islam) refuse their reverence.

In disputation with them do not expect more

than dullness, for they have no other tool to use

but the gelid intellects, nothing to talk

but nonesense. When the chain of stupidity rusts shut

there s no escape. All their proof is simply abuse -

but who will listen to it on Resurrection Day?

Satan is powerful, yes, but his power lies

only in falsehood and cunning. God values

one above another for his faith - if you expect

succour from Him, give succour to His True Religion.

Put no stock in the moment s good luck

for fortune always hides destruction within it.

I find the world a faithless bawd -

do not mourn her loss. The only positive thing

one can say about her is that she s living proof

of the ephemerality of material good.

Her boon is bane - for no one shall escape death

who has drunk fro her cup - and therefore

do not cover her flawed and sickly benediction.

I ought not strive to gain her company

while she strives for nothing but y discomfort.

She gave me robe after rich robe of honour

then stole them all back, one by one.

Now that I lean for support on God and Islam

I grow weary o the world and of men

and by God s Grace I am freed of need

of anyone who does not need me. The blessed Quran

reposes in my heart, which is filled with peace.

Praise the Lord, that nothing burdens my back

but His favour and Grace, that thanks to the generosity

of the true Imam I have come to know his truth,

his certainty and the justice of his cause -

that matchless king whose domain, of all the earth,

is free of deviltry; who has robed Jupiter

in its constellation of Fortune of all auspiciousness

and joy. Lord, help me to spend my days and nights

in devotion to him, to string together from time to time

a few pious verses based on his knowledge and wisdom.



Reference
Forty Poems from the `Diwan' of Nasir Khusraw. Transl. by P. L. Wilson and Gholam R. Aavani. Tehran: Imperial Iranian Academy of Philosophy, 1977[/quote]
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znanwalla



Joined: 02 Nov 2009
Posts: 401

PostPosted: Mon Dec 21, 2009 2:29 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Wonderful poems Alamot ! keep them coming.......

btw "Imam" Maherally of the pagans like a fool that he is still asking....Ismailis should ask themselves WHICH IS THE SUPREME LAW? The one "Ordained" by an Imam or the one "Revealed" by the Creator?....

Actually the supreme law cannot be honoured unless the protocol established by Allah Himself is followed and that is why in Sura al Hamd Allah commands mankind to remember HIM and invoke a prayer...Guide us to the Right Path.....the path of THOSE upon whom THOU has bestowed Favours....see it does not say anything else other than this path..."the path of those implies some men..." and then Allah says "NOT of those CURSED ONES....NOR of those who have gone astray..."

And even then Maherally is being naive and foolish in saying ismailis should ask themselves...ask what? for 50 years he wasted his time....then he wrote a book "Abraham to Karim".....which he is now afraid to publish because the entire world will know he is a liar and a con artist....he does not know the quran...he reads Mihir Bose who was brought to his knees by the Imam of the ismailis....so send him the poems Alamot....it may help his fragmented soul...
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From_Alamut



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Posts: 666

PostPosted: Tue Dec 22, 2009 1:29 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Mr. Maherally is totally blind physically and spiritually. Allah said in one Ayat of the Holy Quran, if you break your covenant with me, then I shall take all your wisdom and concise from you and then you will be curse and live like as those ignorance.

"(O Prophet) Verily, those who give their allegiance, they give it but to Allah (Himself); Allah's hand is upon their hands. Then he who breaks it, he certainly breaks it against himself. And he who fulfills what he has pledged with Allah, He shall in return reward him in plenty. (Sura Fatah, 48:10)

If Mr. Maherally is really HATRED and against our beloved Kudavan then he should ask himself this question that where is the Hand of God on this Earth? YADULLAH? I have been asked this question from all our Sunnis and Ashnasirya brothers but got no answer, some says that that hand doesn't existed any more....... I will post a poem of Pir Nasir Khusraw (ra) where he talks about YADULLAH and suffered enough that in order to find the hand of GOD on this earth....



8"They say: Why hath not an angel been sent down unto him? If We sent down an angel, then the matter would be judged; no further time would be allowed them (for reflection).
9 "Had We appointed an angel (Our messenger), We assuredly had made him (as) a man (that he might speak to men); and (thus) obscured for them (the truth) they (now) obscure.


Sura VI Cattle
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From_Alamut



Joined: 22 Jan 2008
Posts: 666

PostPosted: Wed Dec 23, 2009 12:40 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

O widely read, O globally travelled one,

(still earth-bound, still caught beneath the sky),

what value would the spheres yet hold for you

were you to catch a glimpse of hidden knowledge?

Will your flesh luxuriate forever

in the boons and blessings of the world? Why not

for a little while enjoy as well the fruits

of knowledge with the tongue of the Spirit?



The dreamers banquets cannot profit him;

only the waking know the taste of gain

and loss. What does the dreamer know of stars

and turquoise dome, or things the Almighty brings

to pass upon his dusty sphere?



. . . Wake up

from this charming vision, you who have slept and dreamt

for forty years, and see that off all the friends

of your youth not one remains. No one is left

to share your drowse and super but the beasts . . .

and that which donkeys eat is not a blessing

any more than that which Caesar conquers

is a kingdom!



. . . Reader if you miss the Path

I would not be surprised, for I, like you,

languished in perplexity for years.

Three hundred ninety four of them had passed

since the Migration, when my mother

dropped me in the dust, a voiceless creature

like a weed which thrives on soil and rain.

From this vegetative state I reached

that of the beasts, and floundered like a bird

whose wings are clipped, till in the Fourth Age

I gained the stature of a man and left

a soul of reason worm its way into

my gloomy body. When the clock of years

had turned some forty-two rounds, my conscious self

began to seek our wisdom. From the mouths

of sages or the pages of ancient books

I heard of the Cosmos, of the whirl of Time

and the Three Kingdoms; but I found myself

superior to all around me, and

among all creatures (so I mused) there must

be one superior to others, like

the falcon amongst all birds, a camel amongst

all beasts of burden, the palm amongst the trees,

the Quran amongst all books, the Kaaba amongst

all houses, heart in the body, sun among stars.

I wondered, and my soul was filled with grief,

my meditations blasted with fear of all

the objects of thought.



From every School I searched:

from Shafiite, Malikite, Hanafite, sought a sign

of guidance, of the Chosen One of God,

the Almighty, the Guide; and each one pointed me

a different way, one to China, one

to Africa. When I asked for a reason, or

for corroboration from the Quran, they recoiled

in helplessness, like blind men, like deaf men.

Then one day, a I read in the Book the Verse

of the Oath, in which God proclaims His Hand

is above all hands, and pondered on that group

who swore allegiance beneath the Tree (like Jafar,

Miqdad, Salman, Budhar) I asked myself

How is it now with that Tree and with that Hand?

Where shall I see that Hand, that group, that Oath?



I asked, but was rebuffed. They are no more

-so I was told- The Tree, the Hand are gone,

the Assembly dispersed, the Hand concealed and veiled

in secrecy. Those men were the Companions,

favoured by that allegiance and chosen to be

with the Prophet in Paradise.

But I said to myself

In the Book it is clear that Ahmad is the Messenger

of Good News, and the Warner, luminous as light.

If the unbelievers wished to blow it out

God would light it again in spite of them.

How is it today that no one is left

of that Community? Surely the word

of the Universal Judge cannot be false!

Whose hand should we grasp, where should we take an oath

that even we men of latter times might enjoy

the justice of heaven? Why should it be our fault

not to be born in that era? Why should we

be deprived of the Prophet, afflicted and distressed?

My face grew pale as a yellow blossom in

the pain of ignorance. I bowed in the wind

of doubt like an aging cypress. The learned man

is like a pomander, his knowledge a halo of musk;

or like a mountain concealing its vein of gold;

but ore without gold, perfume without aroma

are worth no more than dust.



. . . Then I arose

and set out on my way, remembering

neither my home nor past nor garden of roses.

From Persian, Arab, Hindu, Turk and Jew,

from the folk of Sind, from the Romans, from everyone

I met the philosopher, Manichee, Sabaean, atheist,

I asked, I questioned, I pestered. Many a night

I made a stone my pillow, the clouds my tent.

I sank as low as a fish, I ascended as high

as the stars above the hills; now in a land

where water was frozen as marble, now in a land

where the very dust was hot as a spark, I roamed.

Now by the sea, now on the high plateau

or trackless waste, across mountains, sand and streams,

up and down the precipices, coil of rope

round my shoulder like a camel driver, pack

on my back like a mule, inquiring I went my way,

searching from city to city, shore to shore.



. . . . The one day I reached those city gates

where angels are servants, where planets and stars are slaves,

a garden of roses and pines girded round with walls

of emerald and jasper trees, set

in a desert of gold-embroidered silk, its springs

sweet as honey, the river of paradise:

a city which only Virtue can aspire

to reach, a city whose cypresses are like

the blades of Intellect, a cit whose sages

wear brocaded robes woven of silk . . .

And here, before these gates, my Reason spoke:

Here, within these walls, find what you seek

and do not leave without it. So I approached

the Guardian of the Gate, and told him of

my search. Rejoice he answered. Your mine

has produced a jewel, for beneath this land of Truth

there flows a crystal ocean of precious pearls

and pure clear water. This is the lofty sphere

of exalted stars; aye, it is paradise

itself, the Abode of Houris. I heard these words

freighted with meaning, sweet as honey, and felt

myself on the threshold of heaven. I told him, My soul

is weak, though my body may seem strong to you.

I am in pain, but that is nothing. I refuse

a medicine. I cannot understand,

I reject all that is beyond the law.

I am a doctor, he answered. Speak to me

and tell me all that ails you, every detail.



[Here Nasir burdens the gate-keeper with a hundred questions about the Origin and End of the Universe, the mystery of pre-destination, the purpose of creation, and Gods reason for sending Messengers to man. He asks a minute detail abstruse questions of a philosophical and theological nature. Then . . . ]



That sage set his hand upon his heart

(a hundred blessings be on that hand and breast!)

And said, I offer you the remedy

of proof and demonstration; but if you

accept, I shall place a seal upon your lips

which must never be broken. I gave my consent and he

affixed the seal. Drop by drop and day

by day he fed me the healing potion, till

my ailment disappeared, my tongue became

imbued with eloquent speech; my face, which had

been pale as saffron now grew rosy with joy;

I who had been a stone was now a ruby;

I had been dust - now I was ambergris.

He put my hand into the Prophets hand,

I spoke the Oath beneath that exalted Tree

so heavy with fruit, so sweet with cooling shade.



Have you ever heard of a sea which flows from fire?

Have you ever seen a fox become a lion?

The sun can transmute a pebble, which even the hand

of Nature can never change, into a gem.

I am that precious stone, my Sun is he

by whose rays this tenebrous world is filled with light.

In jealousy I cannot speak his name

in this poem, but can only say that for him

Plato himself would become a slave. He

is the teacher, hearer of souls, favoured of God,

image of wisdom, fountain of knowledge and Truth.

Blessed the ship with him for its anchor, blessed

the city whose sacred gate he ever guards!



O Countenance of Knowledge, Virtues Form,

Heart of Wisdom, Goal of Humankind,

O Pride of Pride; I stood before thee, pale

and skeletal, clad in a woolen cloak,

and kissed thine hand as if it were the grave

of the Prophet or Black Stone of the Kaaba.

Six years I served thee; and now, wherever I am

so long as I live Ill use my pen and ink,

my inkwell and my paper . . . in praise of thee!



The story of the oath of allegiance (bayah) of the Holy Prophet and his Companions plays a very significant role in the esoteric teachings of Islam. In Sufism, for example, the allegiance paid to the spiritual master and related to the central act of initiation, is looked upon as an echo or prolongation of that original allegiance.

Nasir mentions - though not explicitly - the person who introduced him to the mysteries of religion. He describes him as the guardian of a city. In another poem, he gives more details about this spiritual guide:



Why so silent, eloquent one? Why do you not

string pearls and corals upon the necklace of verse?

Do not content yourself to be like the mob;

take your place of pride amongst your equals,

for thanks to the spiritual guidance of Khwajah Muayyad

God has opened Wisdoms gate for you.

He who sees the Khwajah on assembly day,

sees Intellect itself in the midst of turmoil.

He made my dark night bright day

with proofs luminous as the sun.
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From_Alamut



Joined: 22 Jan 2008
Posts: 666

PostPosted: Wed Dec 23, 2009 1:02 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

THIS POEM MUST BE READ BY ALL MY SPIRITUAL BROTHERS AND SISTERS INSHALLAH...........


O widely read, O globally travelled one,

(still earth-bound, still caught beneath the sky),

what value would the spheres yet hold for you

were you to catch a glimpse of hidden knowledge?

Will your flesh luxuriate forever

in the boons and blessings of the world? Why not

for a little while enjoy as well the fruits

of knowledge with the tongue of the Spirit?



The dreamers banquets cannot profit him;

only the waking know the taste of gain

and loss. What does the dreamer know of stars

and turquoise dome, or things the Almighty brings

to pass upon his dusty sphere?



. . . Wake up

from this charming vision, you who have slept and dreamt

for forty years, and see that off all the friends

of your youth not one remains. No one is left

to share your drowse and super but the beasts . . .

and that which donkeys eat is not a blessing

any more than that which Caesar conquers

is a kingdom!



. . . Reader if you miss the Path

I would not be surprised, for I, like you,

languished in perplexity for years.

Three hundred ninety four of them had passed

since the Migration, when my mother

dropped me in the dust, a voiceless creature

like a weed which thrives on soil and rain.

From this vegetative state I reached

that of the beasts, and floundered like a bird

whose wings are clipped, till in the Fourth Age

I gained the stature of a man and left

a soul of reason worm its way into

my gloomy body. When the clock of years

had turned some forty-two rounds, my conscious self

began to seek our wisdom. From the mouths

of sages or the pages of ancient books

I heard of the Cosmos, of the whirl of Time

and the Three Kingdoms; but I found myself

superior to all around me, and

among all creatures (so I mused) there must

be one superior to others, like

the falcon amongst all birds, a camel amongst

all beasts of burden, the palm amongst the trees,

the Quran amongst all books, the Kaaba amongst

all houses, heart in the body, sun among stars.

I wondered, and my soul was filled with grief,

my meditations blasted with fear of all

the objects of thought.



From every School I searched:

from Shafiite, Malikite, Hanafite, sought a sign

of guidance, of the Chosen One of God,

the Almighty, the Guide; and each one pointed me

a different way, one to China, one

to Africa. When I asked for a reason, or

for corroboration from the Quran, they recoiled

in helplessness, like blind men, like deaf men.

Then one day, a I read in the Book the Verse

of the Oath, in which God proclaims His Hand

is above all hands, and pondered on that group

who swore allegiance beneath the Tree (like Jafar,

Miqdad, Salman, Budhar) I asked myself

How is it now with that Tree and with that Hand?

Where shall I see that Hand, that group, that Oath?



I asked, but was rebuffed. They are no more

-so I was told- The Tree, the Hand are gone,

the Assembly dispersed, the Hand concealed and veiled

in secrecy. Those men were the Companions,

favoured by that allegiance and chosen to be

with the Prophet in Paradise.

But I said to myself

In the Book it is clear that Ahmad is the Messenger

of Good News, and the Warner, luminous as light.

If the unbelievers wished to blow it out

God would light it again in spite of them.

How is it today that no one is left

of that Community? Surely the word

of the Universal Judge cannot be false!

Whose hand should we grasp, where should we take an oath

that even we men of latter times might enjoy

the justice of heaven? Why should it be our fault

not to be born in that era? Why should we

be deprived of the Prophet, afflicted and distressed?

My face grew pale as a yellow blossom in

the pain of ignorance. I bowed in the wind

of doubt like an aging cypress. The learned man

is like a pomander, his knowledge a halo of musk;

or like a mountain concealing its vein of gold;

but ore without gold, perfume without aroma

are worth no more than dust.



. . . Then I arose

and set out on my way, remembering

neither my home nor past nor garden of roses.

From Persian, Arab, Hindu, Turk and Jew,

from the folk of Sind, from the Romans, from everyone

I met the philosopher, Manichee, Sabaean, atheist,

I asked, I questioned, I pestered. Many a night

I made a stone my pillow, the clouds my tent.

I sank as low as a fish, I ascended as high

as the stars above the hills; now in a land

where water was frozen as marble, now in a land

where the very dust was hot as a spark, I roamed.

Now by the sea, now on the high plateau

or trackless waste, across mountains, sand and streams,

up and down the precipices, coil of rope

round my shoulder like a camel driver, pack

on my back like a mule, inquiring I went my way,

searching from city to city, shore to shore.



. . . . The one day I reached those city gates

where angels are servants, where planets and stars are slaves,

a garden of roses and pines girded round with walls

of emerald and jasper trees, set

in a desert of gold-embroidered silk, its springs

sweet as honey, the river of paradise:

a city which only Virtue can aspire

to reach, a city whose cypresses are like

the blades of Intellect, a cit whose sages

wear brocaded robes woven of silk . . .

And here, before these gates, my Reason spoke:

Here, within these walls, find what you seek

and do not leave without it. So I approached

the Guardian of the Gate, and told him of

my search. Rejoice he answered. Your mine

has produced a jewel, for beneath this land of Truth

there flows a crystal ocean of precious pearls

and pure clear water. This is the lofty sphere

of exalted stars; aye, it is paradise

itself, the Abode of Houris. I heard these words

freighted with meaning, sweet as honey, and felt

myself on the threshold of heaven. I told him, My soul

is weak, though my body may seem strong to you.

I am in pain, but that is nothing. I refuse

a medicine. I cannot understand,

I reject all that is beyond the law.

I am a doctor, he answered. Speak to me

and tell me all that ails you, every detail.



[Here Nasir burdens the gate-keeper with a hundred questions about the Origin and End of the Universe, the mystery of pre-destination, the purpose of creation, and Gods reason for sending Messengers to man. He asks a minute detail abstruse questions of a philosophical and theological nature. Then . . . ]



That sage set his hand upon his heart

(a hundred blessings be on that hand and breast!)

And said, I offer you the remedy

of proof and demonstration; but if you

accept, I shall place a seal upon your lips

which must never be broken. I gave my consent and he

affixed the seal. Drop by drop and day

by day he fed me the healing potion, till

my ailment disappeared, my tongue became

imbued with eloquent speech; my face, which had

been pale as saffron now grew rosy with joy;

I who had been a stone was now a ruby;

I had been dust - now I was ambergris.

He put my hand into the Prophets hand,

I spoke the Oath beneath that exalted Tree

so heavy with fruit, so sweet with cooling shade.



Have you ever heard of a sea which flows from fire?

Have you ever seen a fox become a lion?

The sun can transmute a pebble, which even the hand

of Nature can never change, into a gem.

I am that precious stone, my Sun is he

by whose rays this tenebrous world is filled with light.

In jealousy I cannot speak his name

in this poem, but can only say that for him

Plato himself would become a slave. He

is the teacher, hearer of souls, favoured of God,

image of wisdom, fountain of knowledge and Truth.

Blessed the ship with him for its anchor, blessed

the city whose sacred gate he ever guards!



O Countenance of Knowledge, Virtues Form,

Heart of Wisdom, Goal of Humankind,

O Pride of Pride; I stood before thee, pale

and skeletal, clad in a woolen cloak,

and kissed thine hand as if it were the grave

of the Prophet or Black Stone of the Kaaba.

Six years I served thee; and now, wherever I am

so long as I live Ill use my pen and ink,

my inkwell and my paper . . . in praise of thee!


...........

[Nasir mentions - though not explicitly - the person who introduced him to the mysteries of religion. He describes him as the guardian of a city. In another poem, he gives more details about this spiritual guide:]



Why so silent, eloquent one? Why do you not

string pearls and corals upon the necklace of verse?

Do not content yourself to be like the mob;

take your place of pride amongst your equals,

for thanks to the spiritual guidance of Khwajah Muayyad

God has opened Wisdoms gate for you.

He who sees the Khwajah on assembly day,

sees Intellect itself in the midst of turmoil.

He made my dark night bright day

with proofs luminous as the sun.


By: Hujjat and Pir Seyyendena Nasir-i Khusraw (ra)


Reference
Forty Poems from the `Diwan' of Nasir Khusraw. Transl. by P. L. Wilson and Gholam R. Aavani. Tehran: Imperial Iranian Academy of Philosophy, 1977
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From_Alamut



Joined: 22 Jan 2008
Posts: 666

PostPosted: Tue Dec 29, 2009 10:28 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

In Praise of the Prophet(a.s.a)


I choose

the Quran

and the Faith of Muhammad

for those

where the choices

of Muhammad himself;

I know

if I practise the two

my Certainty

will become

as the Certitude

of the Prophet.

My key

to Paradise - my guide

to Felicity

the fortified Citadel:

what are they but

the Religion of Muhammad:

For us

he is the Messenger

of God - such

was the carving

on the seal-ring

of the Prophet.

Rooted in my heart:

the Faith

and the Book

as firmly

as in the heart

of Muhammad.

By God s Grace

my hope, my prayer

is to be

the least

of servants in the Community

of Muhammad.

My brother,

in the sea-depths

of religion

the Quran

is the pearl beyond price

of the Prophet;

every king

owns a treasure

of Mohammad.

Now look

to these riches,

this pearl:

who now

is custodian

of Muhammad s legacy?

You yourself

would bequeath your wealth

to your children;

just so are his children

the guardians

the heirs of the Prophet.

Ponder well:

you Muslims

will not fine

the jewels

but in keeping

of Muhammad s progeny.

Surely he handed

all down to him

who was

worthiest

of all Companions

of the Prophet.

Who was he,

the Companion?

his Wife

was the delight

of the eye

of Muhammad

and from this delight

and this Companion

were born

Hasan

and Husayn, the darlings

of Muhammad.

I have seen

in both worlds

the reality

of Husayn

and Hasan: the rose

and jasmine of the Prophet;

where

in heavcn and earth

could such blossoms spring

but in the garden

from the soil

of Muhammad?

I dare not

I tremble

lest I prefer

any creature

above these beloved ones

of God s Prophet.

The Book,

and the Sword

of the Lion of God:

these are bulwarks

beneath the firm Faith

of Muhammad.

Who stood

sword drawn

in every battle

who stood

at the right hand

of the Prophet?

The Sword of Ali

lent its aid

to the Quran

and Ali no doubt

was the Help

of Muhammad.

Ali:

in Islam

as Aaron to Mosses:

partner

companion

of the Prophet;

on the Last Day

Aaron and Moses

shall kiss

the Mantle of Ali,

the sleeve

of Muhammad.

Seek knowledge

he bid us

even in China :

Ah! What praise are mine

in the China

of Muhammad.

I heard

from the heir

of the Prophet

the honeysweet

words, the Sayings

of Muhammad;

my heart beheld

a mystery revealed

from the Origin

to Ali s heart

through the Prophecy

of Muhammad

and learned

from the babes of Fatimah

and her husband

the true

nature

of the Prophet.

Surely

I could have gained

no more than I gained

from that

illustrious child

of the Rank of Muhammad

surely

I could have gained

no more

had I lived

myself in the time

of Muhammad.

The Creator

of the Universe Himself

praise me

for my love

of Ali, my blessings

on the Prophet

and with the Blessing

of the Lord

of the Worlds

I dwell

in the Stronghold

of Muhammad.


By: Hujjat and Pir Seyyendena Nasir-i Khusraw (ra)


Reference
Forty Poems from the `Diwan' of Nasir Khusraw. Transl. by P. L. Wilson and Gholam R. Aavani. Tehran: Imperial Iranian Academy of Philosophy, 1977


http://www.ismaili.net/Source/Fourty_Poems/fourty.htm
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Admin



Joined: 06 Jan 2003
Posts: 6091

PostPosted: Tue Dec 29, 2009 10:47 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

What is the aim of posting and re-posting again and again these poems which are already given in the link and are available on this web site since 10 years.

Please have some consideration and do not post entire text when a link is available on this site.

And then someone will quote again the whole posting just to add his comment "nice"

Please search the word <netiquette> on google before posting in any Forum.
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From_Alamut



Joined: 22 Jan 2008
Posts: 666

PostPosted: Sun Mar 21, 2010 5:59 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

A must watch, short, English documentary about the miraculous birth of Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS),the first infallible successor, vicegerent, caliph, leader, and Imam after prophet Muhammed (P) and the only one who was born in the holiest place in the world, the holy Ka'bah in Masjid Al-Haram, in the holy city of Makkah.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Av84h7VouU&feature=related


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ziJqahIzNO8&NR=1
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ShamsB



Joined: 04 Aug 2004
Posts: 1118

PostPosted: Mon Mar 22, 2010 10:31 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

From_Alamut wrote:
A must watch, short, English documentary about the miraculous birth of Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS),the first infallible successor, vicegerent, caliph, leader, and Imam after prophet Muhammed (P) and the only one who was born in the holiest place in the world, the holy Ka'bah in Masjid Al-Haram, in the holy city of Makkah.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Av84h7VouU&feature=related


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ziJqahIzNO8&NR=1


Imam after Prophet Mohammed?

Shams
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agakhani



Joined: 07 May 2008
Posts: 2059
Location: TEXAS. U.S.A.

PostPosted: Tue Mar 23, 2010 3:31 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Imamat is continue for a long time not after the Prophet Mohammad (s.a.), as per the old dua Imamt is continue since Adam and it will continue till the day of judgment. Pir Sadardin mentioned many time in his ginan and in old dua 77 "PATRA" all these Patras were holding noor of Imamat.
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From_Alamut



Joined: 22 Jan 2008
Posts: 666

PostPosted: Tue Mar 23, 2010 4:46 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

ShamsB wrote:
From_Alamut wrote:
A must watch, short, English documentary about the miraculous birth of Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS),the first infallible successor, vicegerent, caliph, leader, and Imam after prophet Muhammed (P) and the only one who was born in the holiest place in the world, the holy Ka'bah in Masjid Al-Haram, in the holy city of Makkah.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Av84h7VouU&feature=related


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ziJqahIzNO8&NR=1


Imam after Prophet Mohammed?

Shams



Sorry about that, I didn't mean it like that, but what my point was that to show you that Hazrat Mowla Ali (as) was born in the Holy House of Kaaba
and that proofs that He was the true successor of the Holy Prophet Mohammad (asa), so that all Muslim brothers and sisters should understand that..........That video clip which I post in the above is from some Ashnaseri guy not us........
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