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Qadi Numan

 
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PostPosted: Sun Apr 19, 2015 8:11 pm    Post subject: Qadi Numan Reply with quote

Qadi an Nu'man the Fatimid Jurist and Author

Qadi Numan is a prolific author and Jurist credited with 45+ works. Qadi Nu'man served under 4 Fatimid Caliphs. His Biography and work is presented in this early article by Asaf Ali Ashgar Fyzee, the expert in the field of study of Qadi Numan's work.

more info, PDF file download of this article and also links to related subjects on

http://ismaili.net/heritage/node/29052
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kmaherali



Joined: 27 Mar 2003
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PostPosted: Sat Jan 19, 2019 12:14 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Life of Qadi al-Nu'man -- Qadi al-Nu'man's Code of Conduct for the Followers of Imam

pdf file at:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1JCm9ZO7sFP9Qz6pEkwFtTtxlGthuWLzF/view
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kmaherali



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PostPosted: Thu Jan 24, 2019 1:17 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Imam al-Mu’izz: “Whoever presents a tenth of what al-Nu’man has accomplished, I guarantee him paradise …”

Posted by Nimira Dewji
The foremost Ismali jurist and founder of Fatimid Ismaili legal system, al-Qadi al-Nu’man was born in 903 in Qayrawan, North Africa, into a learned family. He entered the service of Fatimid Caliph-Imam al-Mansur in 925, serving the Fatimids for fifty years until his death in 974.

Named after the Prophet’s daughter, the Fatimids, Mawlana Hazar Imam’s ancestors, established their empire in 909 in North Africa when Imam al-Mahdi was proclaimed Caliph. The Fatimid Caliphate remained in North Africa during the reign of Imams al-Mahdi (r. 909-934), al-Qa‘im (r. 934-946), and al-Mansur (r. 946-953). In 973, Imam al-Mu’izz (r. 953-975) transferred the capital of the empire to Cairo, a city he founded. Al-Nu‘man accompanied Imam al-Mu‘izz to the new Fatimid capital, where he died in 974.

The Fatimids were confronted with a practical problem of statehood as there did not exist an Ismaili law with which to govern the state and its diverse citizens. In earlier times, the Ismailis had to conceal their beliefs and identities in order to escape persecution, observing the law of the land wherever they lived. The process of codifying Ismaili law began during Imam al-Mahdi’s reign, although Ismailism was never imposed on all subjects of the state.

In 948, Imam al-Mansur appointed al-Nu’man to the position of chief judge of the state. Imam al-Mu’izz, who composed a number of epistles, confirmed al-Numan’s status as chief judge, also entrusting him with the grievance proceedings throughout the Fatimid caliphate. Imam’s letter of investiture stated:

“In your decision and judgements, you should follow the Book of God… if you do not find in the Book any text [concerning an issue] nor any decision in the sunna of the Amir al-Mu’minin’s forefather, Muhammad, the messenger of God…then seek it in the madhab of the imams from the progeny of the Prophet. If a matter appears uncertain or baffling to you, refer it to the Amir al-Mu’minin and he will guide you to the proper decision.”
(Jiwa, Towards a Shi’i Mediterranean Empire, p 27)

Under the Fatimids, the chief judge was also responsible for the da’wa activities. Thus, the “responsibilities for explaining and enforcing the zahir or the letter of the law and interpreting its batin or inner meaning, were united in one and the same person under the overall guardianship and guidance of the Imam of the time” (Daftary, A Short History of the Ismailis, p 76).

Centred on the Shi’i doctrine of Imamat, Al-Nu’man “codified Ismaili law by systematically collecting the firmly established legal hadiths transmitted from the ahl al-bayt“(Daftary, A Short History of the Ismailis, p 76). He produced the compendium Kitab al-idah, which has not survived except for one small fragment. He also compiled ‘The Book of Devotion: The Good Manners of the Followers of the Imam‘ (Kitab al-himma fi adab atba al- a’imma), in which he conveys “the fitting conduct towards the imam and above all in the presence of the imam […] It is a text of only four pages, but it includes all the principles of the Ismailis’ learning tradition” (Halm, The Fatimids and their Traditions of Learning, p 61).

Al-Nu’man’s efforts culminated in the Da’a’im al-Islam (Pillars of Islam), which was closely supervised by Imam al-Mu’izz and endorsed as the official legal code of the Fatimid state. Imam al-Mu’izz “urged everyone to study and copy the Da’a’im, also read regularly at the majalis al-hikma” (sessions of wisdom). (Daftary, A Short History of the Ismailis, p 77).

The shari’a, according to the Ismaili interpretation, provided the legal basis for the daily life of Muslim subjects. However, the Ismaili legal code was new and its principles had to be explained to all citizens, which was done in regular public sessions held by al-Nu’man on Fridays after mid-day prayers. The esoteric or batin sessions, majalis al-hikma, catered to Ismailis only, including women, were held at the Fatimid palace. The lectures delivered by al-Nu’man, and later by his successors, were approved by the Imams beforehand. Some of al-Nu’man’s lectures were collected in his Ta’wil da’a’im al-Islam (Hermeneutics of the Pillars of Islam) comprising 120 chapters of majalis.

al-Numan Da'a'im Pillars
Title page of the second volume of Al-Numan’s “Da’a’im al-Islam” produced in India in 1686. Source: The Ismailis An Illustrated History
al-Numan Da'a'im
Title page of the second volume of Qadi al-Nu’man’s “Da’a’im al-Islam” produced in India in the mid-19th century. Source: The Ismailis An Illustrated History
Al-Nu’man wrote more than forty treatises on law, Ismaili doctrines, and history including the Iftitah al-da‘wa (Commencement of the Mission) which narrates the background to the establishment of the Fatimid state.

His Kitab al-majalis wa’l musayarat [‘Audiences and Rides’] “is an eye-witness account of 292 audiences with the Fatimid imams, […] mainly al-Mu’izz. It therefore, ‘constitutes a remarkable account of the imam in action, facing the constant duty of receiving his followers, counselling them and ruling on all manner of issues brought before him.”1

It was largely due to the remarkable “scholarship of al-Qadi al-Nu’man and his mentor al-Mu’izz that a comprehensive legal code was established that could effectively administer the range of faith communities inhabiting the Fatimid empire” (Jiwa, Towards a Shi’i Mediterranean Empire, p 27).

Upon al-Nu’man’s death, Imam al-Mu’izz “led the prayer and laid him to rest on his side in the coffin. He was buried in his own house in Cairo” and “is reported to have eulogised his illustrious contributions to the Fatimid house by pronouncing the following:

‘Whoever presents a tenth of what al-Nu’man has accomplished, I guarantee him paradise on behalf of God.‘2

This tradition of serving the Fatimid cause with distinction was continued by the subsequent generations of al-Nu’man’s family: two of his sons, two grandsons and one great-grandson served as chief qadi and chief da’i in the Fatimid state, although there was no major development subsequently in Ismaili law. (Jiwa, Towards a Shi’i Mediterranean Empire, p 120, n. 338).

The Da‘a’im has continued throughout the centuries to serve as the principal legal text for the Tayyibi Musta‘li branch of Ismailis, including the Ismaili Bohras of South Asia.

1 Walker, Exploring an Islamic Empire, p 138 cited in Towards a Shi’i Mediterranean Empire p. 27, n. 65
2 Idris, Uyun, p 569 cited in Towards a Shi’i Mediterranean Empire p 120, n. 338

Sources:
Shainool Jiwa, Towards a Shi’i Mediterranean Empire, I.B. Tauris in association with The Institute of Ismaili Studies, 2009

Heinz Halm, The Fatimids and their Traditions of Learning, I.B. Tauris in association with The Institute of Ismaili Studies, 1997

Farhad Daftary, A Short History of the Ismailis, Edinburgh University Press, 1998

nimirasblog.wordpress.com/2019/01/24/imam-al-muizz-whoever-presents-a-tenth-of-what-al-numan-has-accomplished-i-guarantee-him-paradise/?utm_source=Direct
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kmaherali



Joined: 27 Mar 2003
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PostPosted: Sat Feb 09, 2019 1:34 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man
Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 01 - Devotion to the Imam pdf at

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1QGufe6C_q2zIfEMeThgGx83aIv6SSZM9/view

Majlis 2. LOVE FOR THE IMAMS pdf file at:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1DZ77hVTfXn10V46bO5jWAX3nDNUicv07/view

Majlis 3. THE RETURN OF THE ' AMANAT ' TO THE IMAM pdf file at:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1dnfn-8JC1l2FQi7nnMnXfNWc4M1QLWR-/view

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 4. RESPECT FOR THE IMAMS.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1UzEUUAxV70xR-a-AW64m5dJovcfv6fmk/view

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 5 - FULFILMENT OF THE TERMS OF BAYAT WITH THE IMAMS

pdf:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1-xQ9IMmI98bJb3w_yt0Rk6XYtwIOok8o/view

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 6 - FRANKNESS OF THE MOMINS IN THEIR DEALINGS WITH THE IMAM

pdf file:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1-Xs-_l-dccBM70wlyJnUcAXWIpTd05Es/view

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 7 - OBEDIENCE TO THE IMAM

pdf file:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1ACwLd7l1DU3OVViEx1CU9iMEj5Rdo4Ml/view

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 8 - TO THANK THE IMAM IN WEAL OR WOE.

pdf file:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/111QM3yXrGLk7eotrI8rzbr_yGQG5rF2j/view


Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 9 - WHAT IS DUE TO THE IMAM FROM PROPERTIES OF THE MOMINS

pdf file:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/14LjewoJeIBaI453igHyYJhbtfaT2uyp_/view

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 10 - SUBMISSION TO THE DECISION OF THE IMAM.

pdf file:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1YzcaeEMaZJojFH8epjFEYCr1YV0POT0W/view

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis I I - WE SHOULD FEAR THE IMAMS.

pdf file:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1eGpLt8cdcZWMIOJ0yYu_gwqncz-xmAuT/view


Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 12 - LOVE THOSE WHO LOVE THE IMAM

pdf file:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1uiyY0Msuryo-BjFCubU312AwD0iqRgXF/view



Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 13 - DO WHAT PLEASES THE IMAM.

pdf file:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1mEHR4Za5Mcobki0YQcON4D8x_mclVsxZ/view


Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 14 THE FOLLOWERS OF THE IMAM SHOULD BE FAIR TO OTHERS,

pdf file:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1TUgLeX0P-At_Ek7JkFIFTRC2bRWm13w-/view

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 15 - THE FOLLOWERS OF THE IMAM ARE REQUIRED TO BE HUMBLE.

Pdf at:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1DT5nFzXstmXOPdaKpu6m1Pur-mMgBiUr/view

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 16 - THE FOLLOWERS OF THE IMAM SHOULD BE FORBEARING, FORGIVING AND GRAVE.

pdf file at:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1WkInpMeg5P5Niw1A6OBP5aTM2FaYexeD/view

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 17 - THE FOLLOWERS OF THE IMAM SHOULD BE SYMPATHETIC TO ONE ANOTHER.

Pdf file at:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1HRW79idLYUDwU-NA5Gcq0bl-wRbVWZgU/view
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kmaherali



Joined: 27 Mar 2003
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PostPosted: Sat May 18, 2019 11:48 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 17 - THE FOLLOWERS OF THE IMAM SHOULD BE SYMPATHETIC TO ONE ANOTHER.

Pdf file at:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1HRW79idLYUDwU-NA5Gcq0bl-wRbVWZgU/view
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