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Qadi Numan

 
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PostPosted: Sun Apr 19, 2015 8:11 pm    Post subject: Qadi Numan Reply with quote

Qadi an Nu'man the Fatimid Jurist and Author

Qadi Numan is a prolific author and Jurist credited with 45+ works. Qadi Nu'man served under 4 Fatimid Caliphs. His Biography and work is presented in this early article by Asaf Ali Ashgar Fyzee, the expert in the field of study of Qadi Numan's work.

more info, PDF file download of this article and also links to related subjects on

http://ismaili.net/heritage/node/29052
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kmaherali



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PostPosted: Sat Jan 19, 2019 12:14 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Life of Qadi al-Nu'man -- Qadi al-Nu'man's Code of Conduct for the Followers of Imam

pdf file at:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1JCm9ZO7sFP9Qz6pEkwFtTtxlGthuWLzF/view
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PostPosted: Thu Jan 24, 2019 1:17 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Imam al-Mu’izz: “Whoever presents a tenth of what al-Nu’man has accomplished, I guarantee him paradise …”

Posted by Nimira Dewji
The foremost Ismali jurist and founder of Fatimid Ismaili legal system, al-Qadi al-Nu’man was born in 903 in Qayrawan, North Africa, into a learned family. He entered the service of Fatimid Caliph-Imam al-Mansur in 925, serving the Fatimids for fifty years until his death in 974.

Named after the Prophet’s daughter, the Fatimids, Mawlana Hazar Imam’s ancestors, established their empire in 909 in North Africa when Imam al-Mahdi was proclaimed Caliph. The Fatimid Caliphate remained in North Africa during the reign of Imams al-Mahdi (r. 909-934), al-Qa‘im (r. 934-946), and al-Mansur (r. 946-953). In 973, Imam al-Mu’izz (r. 953-975) transferred the capital of the empire to Cairo, a city he founded. Al-Nu‘man accompanied Imam al-Mu‘izz to the new Fatimid capital, where he died in 974.

The Fatimids were confronted with a practical problem of statehood as there did not exist an Ismaili law with which to govern the state and its diverse citizens. In earlier times, the Ismailis had to conceal their beliefs and identities in order to escape persecution, observing the law of the land wherever they lived. The process of codifying Ismaili law began during Imam al-Mahdi’s reign, although Ismailism was never imposed on all subjects of the state.

In 948, Imam al-Mansur appointed al-Nu’man to the position of chief judge of the state. Imam al-Mu’izz, who composed a number of epistles, confirmed al-Numan’s status as chief judge, also entrusting him with the grievance proceedings throughout the Fatimid caliphate. Imam’s letter of investiture stated:

“In your decision and judgements, you should follow the Book of God… if you do not find in the Book any text [concerning an issue] nor any decision in the sunna of the Amir al-Mu’minin’s forefather, Muhammad, the messenger of God…then seek it in the madhab of the imams from the progeny of the Prophet. If a matter appears uncertain or baffling to you, refer it to the Amir al-Mu’minin and he will guide you to the proper decision.”
(Jiwa, Towards a Shi’i Mediterranean Empire, p 27)

Under the Fatimids, the chief judge was also responsible for the da’wa activities. Thus, the “responsibilities for explaining and enforcing the zahir or the letter of the law and interpreting its batin or inner meaning, were united in one and the same person under the overall guardianship and guidance of the Imam of the time” (Daftary, A Short History of the Ismailis, p 76).

Centred on the Shi’i doctrine of Imamat, Al-Nu’man “codified Ismaili law by systematically collecting the firmly established legal hadiths transmitted from the ahl al-bayt“(Daftary, A Short History of the Ismailis, p 76). He produced the compendium Kitab al-idah, which has not survived except for one small fragment. He also compiled ‘The Book of Devotion: The Good Manners of the Followers of the Imam‘ (Kitab al-himma fi adab atba al- a’imma), in which he conveys “the fitting conduct towards the imam and above all in the presence of the imam […] It is a text of only four pages, but it includes all the principles of the Ismailis’ learning tradition” (Halm, The Fatimids and their Traditions of Learning, p 61).

Al-Nu’man’s efforts culminated in the Da’a’im al-Islam (Pillars of Islam), which was closely supervised by Imam al-Mu’izz and endorsed as the official legal code of the Fatimid state. Imam al-Mu’izz “urged everyone to study and copy the Da’a’im, also read regularly at the majalis al-hikma” (sessions of wisdom). (Daftary, A Short History of the Ismailis, p 77).

The shari’a, according to the Ismaili interpretation, provided the legal basis for the daily life of Muslim subjects. However, the Ismaili legal code was new and its principles had to be explained to all citizens, which was done in regular public sessions held by al-Nu’man on Fridays after mid-day prayers. The esoteric or batin sessions, majalis al-hikma, catered to Ismailis only, including women, were held at the Fatimid palace. The lectures delivered by al-Nu’man, and later by his successors, were approved by the Imams beforehand. Some of al-Nu’man’s lectures were collected in his Ta’wil da’a’im al-Islam (Hermeneutics of the Pillars of Islam) comprising 120 chapters of majalis.

al-Numan Da'a'im Pillars
Title page of the second volume of Al-Numan’s “Da’a’im al-Islam” produced in India in 1686. Source: The Ismailis An Illustrated History
al-Numan Da'a'im
Title page of the second volume of Qadi al-Nu’man’s “Da’a’im al-Islam” produced in India in the mid-19th century. Source: The Ismailis An Illustrated History
Al-Nu’man wrote more than forty treatises on law, Ismaili doctrines, and history including the Iftitah al-da‘wa (Commencement of the Mission) which narrates the background to the establishment of the Fatimid state.

His Kitab al-majalis wa’l musayarat [‘Audiences and Rides’] “is an eye-witness account of 292 audiences with the Fatimid imams, […] mainly al-Mu’izz. It therefore, ‘constitutes a remarkable account of the imam in action, facing the constant duty of receiving his followers, counselling them and ruling on all manner of issues brought before him.”1

It was largely due to the remarkable “scholarship of al-Qadi al-Nu’man and his mentor al-Mu’izz that a comprehensive legal code was established that could effectively administer the range of faith communities inhabiting the Fatimid empire” (Jiwa, Towards a Shi’i Mediterranean Empire, p 27).

Upon al-Nu’man’s death, Imam al-Mu’izz “led the prayer and laid him to rest on his side in the coffin. He was buried in his own house in Cairo” and “is reported to have eulogised his illustrious contributions to the Fatimid house by pronouncing the following:

‘Whoever presents a tenth of what al-Nu’man has accomplished, I guarantee him paradise on behalf of God.‘2

This tradition of serving the Fatimid cause with distinction was continued by the subsequent generations of al-Nu’man’s family: two of his sons, two grandsons and one great-grandson served as chief qadi and chief da’i in the Fatimid state, although there was no major development subsequently in Ismaili law. (Jiwa, Towards a Shi’i Mediterranean Empire, p 120, n. 338).

The Da‘a’im has continued throughout the centuries to serve as the principal legal text for the Tayyibi Musta‘li branch of Ismailis, including the Ismaili Bohras of South Asia.

1 Walker, Exploring an Islamic Empire, p 138 cited in Towards a Shi’i Mediterranean Empire p. 27, n. 65
2 Idris, Uyun, p 569 cited in Towards a Shi’i Mediterranean Empire p 120, n. 338

Sources:
Shainool Jiwa, Towards a Shi’i Mediterranean Empire, I.B. Tauris in association with The Institute of Ismaili Studies, 2009

Heinz Halm, The Fatimids and their Traditions of Learning, I.B. Tauris in association with The Institute of Ismaili Studies, 1997

Farhad Daftary, A Short History of the Ismailis, Edinburgh University Press, 1998

nimirasblog.wordpress.com/2019/01/24/imam-al-muizz-whoever-presents-a-tenth-of-what-al-numan-has-accomplished-i-guarantee-him-paradise/?utm_source=Direct
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kmaherali



Joined: 27 Mar 2003
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PostPosted: Sat Feb 09, 2019 1:34 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man
Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 01 - Devotion to the Imam pdf at

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1QGufe6C_q2zIfEMeThgGx83aIv6SSZM9/view

Majlis 2. LOVE FOR THE IMAMS pdf file at:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1DZ77hVTfXn10V46bO5jWAX3nDNUicv07/view

Majlis 3. THE RETURN OF THE ' AMANAT ' TO THE IMAM pdf file at:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1dnfn-8JC1l2FQi7nnMnXfNWc4M1QLWR-/view

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 4. RESPECT FOR THE IMAMS.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1UzEUUAxV70xR-a-AW64m5dJovcfv6fmk/view

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 5 - FULFILMENT OF THE TERMS OF BAYAT WITH THE IMAMS

pdf:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1-xQ9IMmI98bJb3w_yt0Rk6XYtwIOok8o/view

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 6 - FRANKNESS OF THE MOMINS IN THEIR DEALINGS WITH THE IMAM

pdf file:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1-Xs-_l-dccBM70wlyJnUcAXWIpTd05Es/view

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 7 - OBEDIENCE TO THE IMAM

pdf file:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1ACwLd7l1DU3OVViEx1CU9iMEj5Rdo4Ml/view

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 8 - TO THANK THE IMAM IN WEAL OR WOE.

pdf file:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/111QM3yXrGLk7eotrI8rzbr_yGQG5rF2j/view


Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 9 - WHAT IS DUE TO THE IMAM FROM PROPERTIES OF THE MOMINS

pdf file:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/14LjewoJeIBaI453igHyYJhbtfaT2uyp_/view

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 10 - SUBMISSION TO THE DECISION OF THE IMAM.

pdf file:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1YzcaeEMaZJojFH8epjFEYCr1YV0POT0W/view

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis I I - WE SHOULD FEAR THE IMAMS.

pdf file:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1eGpLt8cdcZWMIOJ0yYu_gwqncz-xmAuT/view


Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 12 - LOVE THOSE WHO LOVE THE IMAM

pdf file:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1uiyY0Msuryo-BjFCubU312AwD0iqRgXF/view



Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 13 - DO WHAT PLEASES THE IMAM.

pdf file:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1mEHR4Za5Mcobki0YQcON4D8x_mclVsxZ/view


Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 14 THE FOLLOWERS OF THE IMAM SHOULD BE FAIR TO OTHERS,

pdf file:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1TUgLeX0P-At_Ek7JkFIFTRC2bRWm13w-/view

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 15 - THE FOLLOWERS OF THE IMAM ARE REQUIRED TO BE HUMBLE.

Pdf at:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1DT5nFzXstmXOPdaKpu6m1Pur-mMgBiUr/view

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 16 - THE FOLLOWERS OF THE IMAM SHOULD BE FORBEARING, FORGIVING AND GRAVE.

pdf file at:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1WkInpMeg5P5Niw1A6OBP5aTM2FaYexeD/view

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 17 - THE FOLLOWERS OF THE IMAM SHOULD BE SYMPATHETIC TO ONE ANOTHER.

Pdf file at:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1HRW79idLYUDwU-NA5Gcq0bl-wRbVWZgU/view

Majlis 18 - THE FOLLOWERS OF THE IMAM SHOULD DRESS PROPERLY WHEN VISITING THE IMAM

Pdf file at:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1VkA4dU5L75yExbBDR_BWRCgMUJGw3gj2/view

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 19 -HOW TO STAND, SIT AND TALK IN THE PRESENCE OF THE IMAM.

Pdf file at: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1OfQtBltt93ufzgKKvuSlUV1iSRISkZIC/view

******
Majlis 20 - THE LAWS OF BEHAVIOUR FOR THOSE WHO ACCOMPANY THE IMAM

pdf file at:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1ScsSXGGLYEsZDagieF5yGsZFQBhv3zO8/view

*******
Majlis 21 - THE LAWS OF BEHAVIOUR FOR THE RELATIONS OF THE IMAM

pdf file at:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1WrAGHXC3Ycwm2zPUycbPALysUhA-r20g/view


Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 22 - HOW TO MAKE A REQUEST TO THE IMAM

pdf file:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1iPFpOn5fQej--Yik9uJswwlDGEOCI7uT/view

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 23 - THE MOMINS ARE FORBIDDEN FROM FINDING FAULT WITH THE IMAM.

pdf file:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1TUPQkKAfs-c5uqkSyXVvNdn6pMJqF2ue/view


Last edited by kmaherali on Sat Jul 13, 2019 10:40 am, edited 1 time in total
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kmaherali



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PostPosted: Sat Jul 06, 2019 12:08 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 24 - THE OFFICERS APPOINTED BY THE IMAM SHOULD BE VERY FAIR WITH THE FOLLOWERS OF THE IMAM.

pdf at:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/13h7QPRq6a6DoSAi_rnSFSPTUb_YbsRYE/view

Code of Conduct for the Followers of the Imam by Qadi al-Nu'man

Majlis 25 - THE DUTIES OF THE 'DAA-EES' (Missionaries.).

pdf at:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/15vRXoICoCG3jJP3aY9Kh5Fxj7mQMjW6-/view
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kmaherali



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PostPosted: Wed Jul 24, 2019 2:18 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Imam al-Mu’izz commissioned a history of Fatimid da’is “so that the prayers of those who succeed them…is upon them”

Named after the Prophet’s daughter, the Fatimids, Mawlana Hazar Imam’s ancestors, established their empire in 909 in North Africa when Imam al-Mahdi was proclaimed Caliph. The Fatimid Caliphate remained in North Africa during the reign of Imams al-Mahdi (r. 909-934), al-Qa‘im (r. 934-946), and al-Mansur (r. 946-953). Imam al-Mu’izz (r. 953-975) founded the city of Cairo which subsequently became the capital of the empire.

The foremost Ismali jurist and founder of Fatimid Ismaili legal system, al-Qadi al-Nu’man was born in 903 in Qayrawan, North Africa, into a learned family. In 925, he entered the service of Fatimid Caliph-Imam al-Mahdi, the founder of the Fatimid dynasty, as a district judge. In 948, Imam al-Mansur appointed al-Nu’man to the position of chief judge of the Fatimid state.

Imam al-Mu’izz commissioned al-Nu’man to compile legal compendium of Ismaili law for the Fatimid state. A l-Nu’man’s efforts culminated in the Da’a’im al-Islam (Pillars of Islam), which was closely supervised by Imam al-Mu’izz and endorsed as the official legal code of the Fatimid state; it remains the chief legal text for the Tayyibis and the Bohras. The esoteric counterpart to the Da’a’im is the Ta’wil al-Da’a’im, comprising the weekly lectures delivered at the majalis al-hikma (‘sessions of wisdom’) at the Fatimid palace.

al-Numan Da'a'im Pillars
Title page of the second volume of Al-Numan’s “Da’a’im al-Islam” produced in India in 1686. Source: The Ismailis An Illustrated History
As the official historian of the Fatimids, Imam al-Mu’izz also commissioned al-Nu’man to compile a history of the beginning of the da’wa and the establishment of the Fatimid dynasty. In his Kitab al-majalis wa musayarat (The Book of Sessions and Excursions), al-Nu’man states:

“I collected enough material…to compile a comprehensive work in many parts, following his guidance and classification. I presented them to him. He liked them and was satisfied with them, praised their content and said:

“Concerning the reports of the reign (dawla), those who rule it and those da’is and believers who established it, I would like information on them to be perpetuated in this manner for those who succeed, so that the positive mention of those from bygone times is perpetuated and the prayers of those who succeed them and hear their name is upon them, and so that those who succeed them know the honour that God has prepared for them in the hereafter. That is our duty towards them for they are not amidst us to offer this to them.” (Jiwa, The Founder of Cairo p 96).

The final product … titled Iftitah al-da’wa wa-ibtida al-dawla (The beginning of the da’wa and the establishment of the dawla), contains forty-two chapters in a chronological order. “The first five chapters give a detailed account of the initial stage of the da‘wa in Yemen. The next eight chapters relate [da’i] Abu ‘Abd Allah’s establishment in Kutama territory and the emergence of a local community of supporters.The next nineteen chapters, with the exception of an intervening chapter on caliph-imam al-Mahdi’s emigration, describe military expeditions and Abu ‘Abd Allah’s conquests until his final victory…. The last ten chapters give an account of the advent of the Fatimids, the reign of caliph-imam al-Mahdi and a general survey of events until the year 957 CE when the work was completed,during the reign of Imam al-Mu‘izz, twelve years before the Fatimid conquest of Egypt” (Synopsis, Founding the Fatimid State).

Nu’man’s describes the circumstances under which the book was written and its intended purpose. Poonawala notes that al-Nu’man “candidly states what he was trying to do as a historian and how he is going to accomplish his goal as instructed by al-Mu’izz… History for Nu’man is not a bare collection of discrete accounts of the past and their enumeration, but it serves a more noble purpose of imparting lessons and wisdom. Nu’man’s representation of the past history of the da’wa and the establishment of the dawla is thus significant because of its meaningfulness for the present… Nu’man represents the past history of the da’wa, its origins and its mission, in a particular way that he wanted it to be remembered in the future as instructed by Imam al-Mu’izz” (Culture and Memory in Islam p 352).

Poonawala adds that “Nu’man knew very well that for Muslims precedent was, and still remains, the most powerful guide for thought and behaviour. He, therefore, focuses his attention on contemporary events and at the same time on the memory of earlier times, especially the days of the Prophet, in order to justify the present. Nu’man is, thus, obliged to search the past for inspiration, guidance, and above all evidence of legitimacy for the present” (Ibid. p 353).

Sources:
Ismail K. Poonawala, “The Beginning of the Ismaili Da’wa and the Establishment of the Fatimid Dynasty as Commemorated by al-Qa’di al-Nu’mån,” Culture and Memory in Medieval Islam, Ed. Farhad Daftary and Josef W. Meri, .B. Tauris in association with The Institute of Ismaili Studies, London, 2003

Synopsis, Founding the Fatimid State: The Rise of an Early Islamic Empire, by Mr. Hamid Haji, I.B. Tauris in association with The Institute of Ismaili Studies, London 2006

Synopsis, The Founder of Cairo, The Fatimid Imam-Caliph al-Mu’izz and His Era, tr. Shainool Jiwa, I.B. Tauris in association with The Institute of Ismaili Studies, London, 2013

nimirasblog.wordpress.com/2019/07/24/imam-al-muizz-commissioned-a-history-of-fatimid-dais-so-that-the-prayers-of-those-who-succeed-them-is-upon-them/
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PostPosted: Sat Aug 17, 2019 6:43 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

From Obscurity to Manifestation: The Legal Thought of Qadi al-Nu'man

The Fatimid Caliphate had a major impact on the Medieval Near East, but its origins are obscure. Just as obscure are the origins of its supreme judge -- compiler and codifier of Fatimid law -- Qadi al-Nu'man. The Kutama Berbers were the military backbone of the early Fatimids in Ifriqiyya, and an Arab convert from Sunnism would come to be their legal backbone. Unfortunately Orientalists of old could not do a lot of work with Ismailis despite their interest, until the 1930s when a deluge of Manuscripts became available. Since then, Ismaili studies has been a rapidly developing field. Join me as I elaborate on Qadi al-Nu'man's intellectual milieu, early upbringing, and legal theory -- elucidating on the much understudied niche of Ismaili law.

The paper can be accessed at:

https://www.academia.edu/36158319/From_Obscurity_to_Manifestation_The_Legal_Thought_of_Qa%E1%B8%8D%C4%AB_al-Nu%CA%BFm%C4%81n?email_work_card=view-paper
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